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TPRC47: Research Conference on Communications, Information and...
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Friday, September 20
 

8:00am

Registration and Coffee
WCL parking code for reduced parking:  805355

Friday September 20, 2019 8:00am - 9:00am
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:00am

IMT Spectrum Identification: An Obstacle for 5G Deployments?
Click here for full paper.
Abstract

Tensions are emerging ahead of WRC-19. While this conference will determine the identification of IMT in the millimetre bands, several countries have not waited for it to resolve the issue but instead already decided on which bands will be utilised for 5G. The orderly and centralised allocation of spectrum where WRC / ITU plays a central and pivotal role is starting to break down as regions and individual countries allocate spectrum bands to 5G. As this occurs, and the US criticises the role of the ITU, many commentators have expressed their concern that the WRC will be less relevant in future.  

Within this context, this paper focuses on the allocation of bands to 5G and asks whether IMT identification is a condition of 5G deployment. Through adopting a qualitative methodology that focuses on 5G deployment and planning in frequency bands not identified for IMT, a number of cases – L-band, C-band and 26 GHz in CEPT and 28 GHz in the US and South Korea – are explored. Primary data was collected through participant observation of relevant discussions during and after WRC-15, while secondary data was drawn from ITU-R documents and the trade press.

The analysis reveals that IMT identification is necessary for cellular mobile deployment in some countries (e.g., Russia) while for others (e.g., US) mobile service allocation is sufficient. In both cases, these countries operate within the ITU-R framework but interpret it differently and IMT remains critical even when these interpretations differ. This is because operating without IMT identification is associated with uncertainty in terms of protection against interference and the legal status of the allocation. Having said that, there are still benefits of operating outside with IMT identification such as the avoidance of strict sharing conditions that may add to the cost of deployment. 


Moderators
RL

Roslyn Layton

American Enterprise Institute

Speakers
ME

Mohamed El-Moghazi

NTRA of Egypt
JW

Jason Whalley

Northumbria University


Friday September 20, 2019 9:00am - 9:25am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:00am

Scoping New Policy Frameworks for Local Broadband Networks
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Over many years, locally-initiated and operated broadband infrastructure projects have attempted to resolve the last-mile dilemma. Many generations of do-it-yourself (DIY) network efforts that are either wireless, such as community mesh networks, or wired, such as fiber cooperatives, exist, but in the U.S. scaled developments have been stalled for a variety of reasons that include regulatory prohibitions. This research examines a current ‘third wave’ of community networking, marked by local and DIY efforts as well as technological innovations. We investigate approaches that are technological, managerial, and also aimed at regulatory and economic incentives that may be appropriate in the U.S. We argue that this ‘third wave’ of community networking efforts and technology demonstrates new connectivity models that can solve some of the nation’s broadband problems, especially when accompanied by supportive federal and state policies. The technological, organization, and market implications of the third wave of community networks suggest new policies helpful to provide improved broadband services in various regions amidst incumbent protectionism.


Moderators
JH

John Horrigan

Technology Policy Institute

Speakers
SS

Sharon Strover

University of Texas at Austin
MJ

Martin Johannes Riedl

University of Texas at Austin
SD

Selena Dickey

University of Texas at Austin


Friday September 20, 2019 9:00am - 9:25am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

9:00am

Multisided Markets and Platform Dominance
Click here for full paper.
Abstract
The internet giants – Facebook, Amazon, Apple, Microsoft, and Google – have transformed society with both positive and negative effects. The negative effects have been stark. There have been huge disruptions caused by e-commerce. More recently, subtler, but even more serious negative effects are only now being recognized: threats to democracy, violations of privacy, and monopolistic behavior.

By traditional measures Facebook and Google are highly concentrated. Each has obtained de facto monopolistic or oligopolistic power with little concern on the part of government.

Facebook and Google and other internet giants are multisided markets (MSM); their economic rents are “hidden” from the public. On the user-side of the market, prices are zero – “free.” On the other side of the market, Facebook’s and Google’s revenues are derived from advertising which appears when the users click on advertisers’ web sites. Facebook and Google can extract exorbitant prices for ads, since they are virtually the only source that can target ads directly to potential customers. This is where the economic rents are not so obvious.

This paper addresses the monopolistic aspect of the internet giants. In the single-sided market, monopoly pricing is well defined – as well as tests for predatory behavior; not so with multisided markets. Since the definition of markets is central to the legal enforcement of antitrust statutes, the paper examines non-transactional multisided markets for their potential for determining consumers’ harm and welfare effects, as well as defining monopoly and predatory pricing in this context. Initial estimates of Google’s and Facebook’s social cost in terms of consumers’ welfare loss are $54 and $33 billion, respectively, an increasing cost to consumers of at least $87 billion dollars including the dead-weight loss. It demonstrates and quantifies that dominant internet platforms can create three major harms to consumers:

• Increasing prices to consumers via added costs to the products being advertised,

• Elimination (or non-emergence) of competition in markets to the products being advertised,

• Increasing prices to consumers beyond the cost of advertising via the market power of the remaining firms in the market of the products being advertised.

The paper outlines potential remedies to ameliorate the problems. 


Moderators
KS

Kristian Stout

International Center for Law and Economics

Speakers
EB

Edmond Baranes

University of Montpellier
PR

Paul Rappoport

Temple University
avatar for James Alleman

James Alleman

Professor Emeritus, University of Colorado Boulder
James Alleman is Professor Emeritus at the University of Colorado – Boulder and a Senior Fellow and Director of Research at Columbia Institute of Tele-Information (CITI), Columbia Business School, Columbia University. Dr. Alleman was Visiting Professor CIMBA Italy , Paderno del... Read More →


Friday September 20, 2019 9:00am - 9:33am
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

9:00am

Tribal Technology Assessment: The State of Internet Service on Tribal Lands
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Access to high-speed Internet service has become an essential component to the nation’s economy, education, and healthcare. However, federal data continues to show tribal lands are the least connected areas of the country. AIPI launched a survey to collect information from residents of tribal reservations to determine what levels of Internet access they had and what types of devices they using to access it. The study also identified potential barriers to access, such as the lack of availability or its unaffordability for residents to purchase.

Our survey found that residents on tribal lands are predominantly using smart phones to access the internet, while many are also accessing it through public Wi-Fi or at a friend/relative’s house. However, the data should not be interpreted or used to defend “mobile only” as the singular solution to providing internet service. In this study 50% of respondents stated that their internet use was limited because they did not have enough data in their cell phone plan. Further research is needed to ascertain if there are specific limitations of mobile use in certain situations, such as the reliability or preference of using mobile over hardline connections for certain activities. 


Moderators
MC

Michael Calabrese

New America Foundation

Speakers
TM

Traci Morris

Arizona State University
BH

Brian Howard

Arizona State University


Friday September 20, 2019 9:00am - 9:33am
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

9:00am

Expanding Telecommunications Services in a New Age: How Legal Traditions and Licensing Procedures Impact Telecommunications Industries Around the World
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

This is an empirical study of the differences in quality and price of telecommunication services in 38 countries. The countries are categorized based on their legal tradition (i.e. civil or common law) and spectrum licensing procedure (i.e. auction or comparative hearing). In theory, comparing indicators used by the World Bank, International Telecommunications Union, and other organizations to measure prices and assess the quality of a country’s telecommunication industry will indicate which policy approaches have improved the overall quality of the telecommunications industry. The report also discusses how “successful” regulators have introduced competition in the telecommunications industry and demonstrates what countries falling behind might achieve if they adjust their policies appropriately. Since there are several possible explanations for the observed differences, the study controls for factors that may explain for the observed differences aside from legal tradition, including population density, rural population, and GDP per capita and in the analysis of licensing procedure, the study controls aforementioned variables as well as corruption and the strength of legal rights. The report concludes that status as either a civil or common law country and a country’s choice of licensing procedure strongly influence national telecommunications industries as measured by subscribership, accessibility, costs, the market share of leading operators, and broadband speeds. In five of six the indicators, civil law countries outperformed their common law counterparts in terms of quality of service measures and consumer prices. In five of the six indicators, auction countries seemingly have created higher quality telecommunication industries. Neither legal tradition nor licensing procedure seem to have a measurable effect on the cost of broadband services.


Speakers
MG

Marcela Gomez

University of Pittsburgh
FS

Frederick Steimling

University of Colorado School of Law


Friday September 20, 2019 9:00am - 9:33am
Y115 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:25am

Beyond 5G: The Role of THz Spectrum
Click here for full paper.
Abstract
There have been substantial technical and policy discussions about the spectrum needs of 5G and the necessity of expanding access to higher frequency spectrum, including in the millimeter wave (mmWave) bands from 30 to 300 GHz. The focus, however, has been on bands below 60GHz, or at most 90GHz, which is the current limit of near-future commercial technologies. As wireless markets continue to grow, demand may arise for spectrum in still higher frequency bands above 90GHz, including in the sub-millimeter or Terahertz (THz) bands between 300GHz and 3THz. Although exploiting THz bands is at the frontiers of technical research today and the commercial case for it will depend on further demonstration of the value and constraints, it is worthwhile exploring how THz spectrum might impact wireless network architectures, business/usage cases, and spectrum policy. In this paper, we explore those challenges.

We first explain some of the critical features of THz spectrum that make it both attractive and challenging to use and summarize the current state of our ability to address those challenges by reference to the current engineering research and commercialization progress on exploiting mmWave and higher frequencies. For example, the THz spectrum would offer virtually unbounded capacity (relative to today's demand forecasts) for supporting wide-channels and extremely high data rates, but with demanding Line of Sight (LOS) requirements. THz devices operate in very narrow beams, close to optical wavelengths, and have very limited capability to penetrate materials (e.g., even a sheet of paper is sufficient to block it). Integrating such spectrum into wireless networks will impose important requirements for antenna siting (small cell architectures) and backhaul, posing greater challenges for extending core-network services to edge-networks.

We hypothesize that such spectrum may further empower equipment-based, end-user deployed strategies for deploying wireless networking, with interesting implications for industry structure and regulatory policy. Furthermore, because current spectrum policies are limited to radio frequencies below 300GHz (arguably below 90GHz), THz is the green-field frontier for spectrum policy-making. This offers an opportunity for novel thinking about how best to manage spectrum resources to enable efficient sharing. Moreover, shifting wireless services to THz might free up capacity in the currently scarce lower frequency bands (below 10GHz), with implications for how we should think about spectrum management across all frequency bands. This includes addressing the challenge of the appropriate licensing regime (e.g., exclusive or unlicensed) that should apply for the THz spectrum. A better understanding of the potential uses for the terahertz spectrum is essential for a better understanding of scarcity limits on the lower frequency spectrum. Although the focus of the analysis will be on the THz spectrum, informed by recent technical work being directed by the authors, the applicability of the insights will be more general and applicable to today's efforts to promote spectrum policy reform, wireless network regulation, and realization of the future beyond 5G applications that we are striving to implement. 



Moderators
RL

Roslyn Layton

American Enterprise Institute

Speakers
RS

Rohit Singh

PhD Student, Carnegie Mellon University
WL

William Lehr

Massachussetts Institute of Technology
DS

Doug Sicker

Carnegie Mellon University
KM

Kazi Mohammed Saidul Huq

Instituto de Telecomunicacoes


Friday September 20, 2019 9:25am - 9:50am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:25am

Does the Multilevel Governance of State Aid Encourage Broadband Diffusion? Evidence from Three European Countries
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

EU broadband policy has been described as an example of multi-level governance (MLG) involving manifold actors across different sectors and levels of government. Whereas the extant literature has largely explored the interaction among public and private players and between national and supranational regulators in the context of the EU broadband markets, little attention has been paid to the MLG of state aid for broadband diffusion. This paper aims to fill such a research gap by employing multiple qualitative methods to explore how MLG has affected the implementation of public initiatives in support of broadband diffusion across Spain, Italy and the UK. The cross-country comparison reveals a trend towards the centralisation of public interventions, which created efficiencies in the management of state aid but raised tensions with local authorities. Therefore, the current MLG of state aid needs to be adjusted to balance the benefits of a greater coordination with the need to ensure the effective and active participation of local stakeholders to the implementation of broadband projects. 


Moderators
JH

John Horrigan

Technology Policy Institute

Speakers
PG

Paolo Gerli

Northumbria University
JN

Julio Navio Marco

Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia
JW

Jason Whalley

Northumbria University


Friday September 20, 2019 9:25am - 9:50am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

9:34am

Applying Antitrust in Digital Markets
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

This paper analyzes antitrust principles in the context of digital markets, i.e., areas of the economy where resources are obtained and managed, and value is created primarily through the use of digital technologies. It demonstrates that traditional notions of market power are inadequate for these situations because markets lose boundaries, data used to identify markets and market power decays before it can give meaningful answers, and rivalry occurs across markets. It identifies an alternative approach – resource flow – that focuses on root causes of what has been traditionally called market power. An institution can be considered to be able to avoid competitive pressures when resources flows needed to provide such pressures are throttled, either by inadequate sources or by channel constraints. The paper explores the implications of such throttling being created by firms, occurring through nature, or created by government. 


Speakers
KS

Kristian Stout

International Center for Law and Economics
MJ

Mark Jamison

University of Florida


Friday September 20, 2019 9:34am - 10:06am
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

9:34am

Cell Phones, Security and Social Capital: Examining How Perceptions of Data Privacy Violations Among Cell-Mostly Internet Users Impact Attitudes and Behavior
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

This study details the kinds of online privacy tradeoffs that disproportionately impact cell-mostly internet users — who are likely to be Black, Hispanic or low-income. During focus group discussions with 79 cell-mostly internet users in Philadelphia and Long Beach, Calif., we posed three research questions. First, how do cell mostly internet users — who tend to live in economically marginalized communities — articulate the perceived risk factors affecting their mobile phone data practices? In other words, how do they conceptualize data privacy? Second, we explored to what extent do they consider mobile privacy breaches to be discriminatory or unjust? Finally, we asked how do cell mostly internet users alter behavior or pass up opportunities due to privacy concerns? The research finds that members of disadvantaged urban communities who rely on mobile phones to access the internet and frequently use mobile apps, may be disproportionately subjected to privacy violations — sometimes forcing them to alter online behavior in ways that harm personal relationships and limit prospective employment. Study participants reported being on their phones “24/7,” “a few times an hour” and one even commented that the phone “is a part of me.” These anecdotes are supported by the app tracker data we collected from 14 study participants who installed App Usage. The project findings shine light on an increasingly serious problem of digital life — the inequities exacerbated by data insecurity that are experienced by all individuals but are more salient among those living in economic precarity.


Moderators
MC

Michael Calabrese

New America Foundation

Speakers
JF

Jan Fernback

Temple University
GS

Gwen Shaffer

California State University Long Beach


Friday September 20, 2019 9:34am - 10:06am
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

9:34am

Cloud Control: China’s 2017 Cybersecurity Law and its Role in US Data Standardization
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

This paper contends that by influencing the security issues presented by global corporate data investments through a combination of domestic policymaking, dominance in key market sectors, and leadership in international standards-making organizations, China is establishing new global standards for the data trade. In 2017, Apple Inc. was one of the first firms to build a new joint venture data center in China to comply with China’s Cybersecurity Law of the same year. This law requires all firms that maintain “critical information infrastructure” to store their data on a Chinese-owned server. Apple, like many firms operating in China, relies heavily on data centers to function in the Chinese market. However, for Apple, as for many other companies in areas ranging from engineering services to enterprise computing, the decision to open a data center with major ownership by a Chinese firm transforms the politics of power and access to data within the company and among its consumers. Indeed, shortly after Apple began migrating the data of Chinese users to its new Chinese servers, some US-based users reported the migration of their data to Chinese servers as well.

The effects of Chinese influence on data security standards in the United States have yet to be thoroughly explored in the communications scholarship. No one has done so in relation to data storage for firms that are not explicitly in the digital economy such as white goods providers and home monitoring systems,. Drawing on reviews of Chinese corporate filings and government documents, as well as U.S. corporate filings this paper concludes that China’s Cybersecurity Law and the related technology regulatory framework have fundamentally transformed the ownership and the circulation of the data within the US market. The findings of this paper suggest that the United States should change its approach, because its current laissez-faire policies ultimately protect neither consumers nor national competitiveness.

China’s influence on global data governance lies at the core of the future of global communications policy. Targeted, critical perspectives on the country’s specific policies and their effects on firms across a wide range of sectors will help regulators to plan for mid- and long-term strategic challenges not just in the technology industry, but across sectors. As more industrial sectors become data-driven, communications policy will take an increasingly central role in industrial regulation writ large. 


Moderators
MG

Marcela Gomez

University of Pittsburgh

Speakers
AK

Aynne Kokas

University of Virginia


Friday September 20, 2019 9:34am - 10:06am
Y115 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:50am

WRC-19 and 5G Spectrum Planning
Click here for full paper.
Abstract
This paper predicts the likely outcome of spectrum planning work on fifth generation wireless (“5G”) services at the 2019 World Administrative Conference (“WRC-19”). It considers whether the United States delegation to the conference embraced old lessons about International Telecommunication Union (“ITU”) spectrum management and emerging ones generated by the new technologies and services 5G will offer, as well as growing national security and industrial policy concerns.

Well before WRC-19, carriers in many nations have begun to offer wireless services using the 5G label. These carriers have acted in advance of finalized spectrum allocation decisions and risk rolling out services on frequencies that may not match a future global consensus. This paper identifies opportunities and benefits in an expedited, unilateral approach, but also notes the potential for significant threats and costs, particularly in light of known, but apparently ignored, or forgotten lessons about global and national spectrum planning.

At WRC-15, the United States largely failed to secure consensus support for expanding global spectrum allocations to include more bandwidth near existing allocations in the Ultra High Frequency band and at extremely high, single and double digit GigaHertz frequencies. This paper considers whether changes in WRC-19 preparations by the United States delegation and in the attitudes of delegations from other nations will support expedited consideration of 5G frequency allocations throughout the usable radio spectrum.

The paper concludes that determining whether the United States achieved success depends in large part on one’s understanding of the pace, nature, procedures and goals of the ITU spectrum planning process. Observers, including FCC commissioners of both political parties, have complained about flaws in the ITU administrative process that contributed to the absence of efforts to expedite rollout of 5G services and other national objectives. Proponents of the process support the ITU as methodical, thorough, consensus driven and conflict avoiding. WRC-19 will likely generate the same inconsistent evaluations.




Moderators
RL

Roslyn Layton

American Enterprise Institute

Speakers
avatar for rob frieden

rob frieden

Professor, Bellisario College


Friday September 20, 2019 9:50am - 10:15am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:50am

How Telecommunication Regulations Can Contribute to the Alleviation of Traffic Explosion in the Japanese NGN
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Internet traffic is increasing explosively throughout the world, causing congestion. This study aims to find policy solutions for carriers and ISPs in Japan. In 2008, to cope with expected increasing traffic, richer contents, and to meet the various needs of content providers, NTT locals initiated an NGN (Next Generation Network) service, which enables rapid and large-volume data transmission. QoS can also be guaranteed. Four categories of connections, according to service quality, have been put into operation, these being (i) videophones, (ii) broadcasting, including 4K and 8K, (iii) VoIP, and (iv) ordinal best-effort type Internet access. Most of the traffic over NGN is (iv) best-effort type. NTT locals prepared two types of connection to NGN; PPPoE (Point-to-Point protocol over Ethernet) and IPoE (IP over Ethernet). The former is mainly used by small local ISPs, whereas the latter is used by VNEs (Virtual Network Enablers) and large ISPs. The point of connection to NGN is thought to be a cause of congestion. For ISPs to connect to NGN, they must accept the rules set by NTT locals. Accordingly, smooth access for IPSs to the NGN network became matters of policy. This study proposes (i) fair rules for ISPs to connect to NGN; and (ii) a scheme of connection charges based on service quality. NGN should be for all entities to access and utilize for various applications leading to new economies. This study proposes how NGN can avoid congestion and be utilized fully and wisely as the age of IoT and 5G approaches.


Moderators
JH

John Horrigan

Technology Policy Institute

Speakers
MT

Masatsugu Tsuji

Kobe International University
SS

Sobee Shinohara

KDDI Research


Friday September 20, 2019 9:50am - 10:15am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

10:06am

Can Antitrust Enforcement Improve Privacy Protection? Privacy as a Parameter of Competition in Merger Reviews
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

In principle, antitrust merger reviews can take steps to preserve privacy competition by blocking or conditioning proposed transactions that substantially lessen this form of competition. This essay focuses on the realistic prospects for making progress on privacy protection in this way. After some general remarks on the topic, it illustrates the way merger reviews can assess privacy competition through an examination of two recent merger reviews involving digital platforms, the European Commission’s decisions in their reviews of the Facebook/WhatsApp merger and the Microsoft/LinkedIn merger.

The implications of this assessment should not give us cause for optimism. Any exercise of competition law’s merger review mechanisms to address privacy concerns necessarily confronts a range of legal, factual and practical considerations that collectively amount to large and potentially insurmountable obstacles. These include the inability to apply or extend privacy law directly, the unresolved conceptual knots in clarifying the notion of privacy competition, the empirical difficulties in determining the existence and extent of privacy competition, and the requirement to show that any post-merger failure to satisfy privacy preferences results from a substantial lessening of competition, rather than from independent business judgments or the proper operation of competitive forces. Finally, merger reviews face a fundamental legal limitation in the form of an inability to introduce new competition into the marketplace. This makes it highly unlikely, though not impossible, for merger reviews to increase privacy protections beyond what would already be provided for in the marketplace.

The thrust of the essay is not that it is bad competition law to consider privacy competition in merger reviews.  Rather the point is such efforts are not likely to improve privacy very much. In the end, if we want more privacy than current privacy law requires, and more than companies would normally provide on their own, we will need to establish it through other resources available to competition law or directly through new national privacy legislation. 


Moderators
KS

Kristian Stout

International Center for Law and Economics

Speakers
MM

Mark MacCarthy

Georgetown University


Friday September 20, 2019 10:06am - 10:40am
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

10:06am

Digital Reentry: Uses of and Barriers to ICTs in the Prisoner Reentry Process
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

In the United States, prison reform remains the focus of policies and foundation efforts. High incarceration rates and a focus on incapacitation during incarceration lead to a “revolving door effect”, with more than two thirds of parolees rearrested within three years of release. One aspect that is missing from this debate is how access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) might improve the prisoner reentry process.

Although there are localized efforts, such as New York City’s Prisoner Reentry Institute’s “Tech 101” course, instruction of ICTs is not a core component of prisoner reentry. Some reentry training is computer-assisted, and some prisons offer basic computer classes. Yet, most courses do not cover how to operate the Internet, and there is little research on access to ICTs and the digital skills of returning citizens. We ask:

RQ1. Which types of ICTs do parolees use, if any, and for what purpose?

RQ2. If parolees do not use ICTs, what are the key barriers to access and use of ICTs?

RQ3. Which kinds of ICTs do parolees need to access and use reentry services?

We conducted focus groups with 78 male and female returning citizens in a large Midwestern city in spring 2018. The mean age was 52 years (M=52.07, SD=19.4). Participants had been released from prison within 4 months of the focus groups and they had served a sentence of at least 2-3 years. We used a semi-structured approach to ask questions about ICT use, use barriers, and the kinds of ICTs needed during reentry. We conducted various rounds of thematic coding of the transcribed data using NVivo.

All participants had cell phones, mostly smartphones (62%), but only few owned laptops or tablets (8.2% and 9.6%, respectively). As most participants lived in temporary housing, access to computers and the Internet was limited. In addition, lack of skills was a main barrier, although this varied depending on age, length of sentence, and how much participants had engaged with ICTs before. The perceived effects of lack of access and skills were largely negative. Participants reported issues in using ICTs to search and apply for jobs, write emails, and use apps on their phones. Whereas some were able to learn from friends, family, shelter staff, community centers, or teach themselves, many were unsure where to ask for help and what kinds of help to ask for.

This study gives crucial insights into ICT uses and barriers to use during the reentry process. As part of our policy recommendations, we stress the importance of including ICT training during and after incarceration. While we do not claim that being able to use ICTs is the magic wand to fix recidivism, we argue that ICTs are an important and currently overlooked component of prisoner reentry. 


Moderators
MC

Michael Calabrese

New America Foundation

Speakers
BR

Bianca Reisdorf

UNC Charlotte
JD

Julia DeCook

Michigan State University
avatar for Megan Foster

Megan Foster

UNC Charlotte
JC

Jennifer Cobbina

Michigan State University
AL

Ashleigh LaCourse

Michigan State University


Friday September 20, 2019 10:06am - 10:40am
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

10:06am

Internet Governance in Russia - Sovereign Basics for Independent Runet
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Nationalization of Internet governance, or, in other words, the assertion of sovereignty over “national segments” of the Internet is a real trend nowadays and it happens predominantly in authoritarian countries. To academically study the assertion of sovereignty and the extent of such an assertion, I use the theoretical framework of cyberspace alignment to national borders introduced by Mueller (2017). He argues that instead of technical fragmentation of the Internet, there are attempts to align the control of cyberspace with national borders while preserving the benefits of using the global network. He suggested three main methods to implement such an alignment: national securitization, territorialization of information flows, and efforts to structure control of critical Internet resources along national lines. This theoretical and methodological frame is useful to study Internet governance in Russia and explain what is happening with RUnet and how close it is now to become a truly “sovereign network.”

The first part of this study describes national securitization in detail: (1) emergence of cybersecurity as a national security issue in the Russian doctrinal documents; (2) centralization of threat intelligence in a form of GOSSOPKA program and creation of the National Coordination Center for Computer Incidents; (3) reliance on nationally produced technologies; (4) establishment or reassertion of legal authority for network kill switch. Notably, the fourth component stands out because the Russian discourse differs from Mueller’s understanding of domestic Internet shutdowns. The Russian focus was (and still is) on an external kill switch for the RUnet by hostile states because it is conceived as a threat to Internet security and resilience in Russia. The study shows that each of the four components takes place in the Russian policy with varying levels of completeness and success.

The second part deals with external content filtering, data localization laws, and geo-blocking. Russia has a comprehensive mix of all components; however, it doesn’t look similar to the Chinese Golden Shield. On the contrary, there is a gradual process of territorializing data and information, elaboration of laws regulating the blocking of websites with unlawful content and filtering of search engine results, while pressing foreign companies to comply with national law.

The third part devoted to the alignment of critical Internet resources to national borders is the most interesting because of its implications for Internet fragmentation. The case of RUnet offers an opportunity to track the development of legislation that deals with critical Internet infrastructure and attempts to create a system that allows RUnet to work independently from the Internet in case of emergency or external shutdown.

In summary, the case study provides the evidence for the Mueller’s theory, but the most important aspect that threatens the Internet with fragmentation is unpacking now in a form of recent legislation about the new logic of routing policies and attempts to make RUnet independent from procedures that ICANN use to maintain the global network. If eventually there will be a technical solution to make it, Russia will create a dangerous precedent for Internet fragmentation. 


Moderators
MG

Marcela Gomez

University of Pittsburgh

Speakers
IS

Ilona Stadnik

Saint-Petersburg State University


Friday September 20, 2019 10:06am - 10:40am
Y115 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

10:15am

The Role of Regulation in 5G Market Design
Click here for full paper.
Abstract
The emergence of new technologies forces policy makers to decide whether the existing legal and regulatory framework is appropriate or whether a different approach might better realize their potential benefits for society. While there is broad agreement on the desirability of competition in future 5G markets, national and regional models differ widely regarding the envisioned role of policy and regulation. This paper explores the rationales, strengths, and weaknesses of specific policies that are currently debated, including the regulation of backhaul services, network rollout targets, MVNO obligations, network neutrality rules, and open platform safeguards. It assesses the effects of these regulatory options on investment and innovation in a theoretical framework that considers the strong interdependencies and complementarities between players in the 5G value system explicitly. This reveals the presence of traditional forms of market failure and the possibility of new ones related to coordination requirements of advanced wireless technologies. The analysis suggests that multiple policy equilibria exist, each corresponding to a specific constellation of 5G policy, that are associated with different innovation and investment trajectories of the sector.


Moderators
RL

Roslyn Layton

American Enterprise Institute

Speakers
NT

Noam Tirosh

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
JB

Johannes Bauer

Michigan State University
avatar for Erik Bohlin

Erik Bohlin

Chalmers University of Technology


Friday September 20, 2019 10:15am - 10:40am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

10:15am

Quality Competition at the Competitive Margin in US Residential Broadband Markets
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the effects of local market structure on residential broadband service quality. The U.S. residential broadband market is an ideal setting for a study of the causal relation between market structure and quality competition. First, available data suggest that nominal prices for residential broadband service plans in the U.S. have basically been flat-- unchanged over the last decade. The major dimension for competition among broadband internet service providers (ISPs) has been improved service quality, particularly upgrades to download speeds. Second, over relatively short time windows, we show there is evidence of substantial entry and exit by firms within spatially disaggregated local markets. Third, both technological innovations and regulatory policy changes have lowered the costs of quality improvements, so there is substantial variation in quality within a cross-section of spatial locations over time.

Using data from multiple sources, we build a rich panel data set that covers all broadband services available by ISP, technology and maximum download speed for each of approximately six million populated U.S. census blocks between December 2014 and December 2017. We describe trends in market structure, quality and technology utilization over this period. Previous empirical analyses examining the effect of market structure on quality provision in the U.S. market (over earlier periods, using more aggregated data) relied on very noisy and sometimes inappropriate measures of quality. Additionally, earlier studies made strong assumptions about the way firms compete in the market, and strong statistical assumptions about explanatory variables.

Given the richness of the data set and a novel empirical identification strategy, we are able to address many of the limitations of previous studies. Identification of the causal effects of market structure on service quality must account for potential endogeneity in market structure. We construct a novel set of plausibly exogenous instruments exploiting spatial technological variation among incumbent and entrant broadband ISPs. We are thus able to identify the effects of entry of new ISPs on service quality for residential customers in spatially disaggregated local markets. Preliminary results suggest that these effects can be substantial, and that intramodal competition (across broadband service technologies) is an important competitive margin driving improvements in quality-adjusted U.S. residential broadband service prices. We conclude by identifying how our results have potential policy implications.
 


Moderators
JH

John Horrigan

Technology Policy Institute

Speakers
KF

Kenneth Flamm

University of Texas at Austin
PV

Pablo Varas

University of Texas at Austin


Friday September 20, 2019 10:15am - 10:40am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

10:40am

Coffee Break
Friday September 20, 2019 10:40am - 11:05am
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:05am

5G Mobile Broadband: Spectrum Challenges for Rural Regions
Click here for full paper.

Abstract:

Wireless technologies offer potential advantages for extending broadband to rural regions because they do not require costly extension of optical fiber that requires trenching through difficult terrain that could include mountains, deserts, roadless expanses, and/or permafrost in the far North. Also usage is shifting from fixed to mobile, even in rural areas, as smart phones and other “smart” devices are becoming increasingly popular, and operators strive to provide additional bandwidth to cope with demand.

Wireless 5G (fifth generation) is currently considered the most promising technology to address the explosive growth in demand not only for consumer services but for public safety, remote monitoring, logistics, and other applications. Mobile 5G technology promises greatly increased bandwidth for mobile devices and potentially for other broadband services. Yet 5G presents challenges that may not only make it difficult to offer in rural areas, but may hinder the availability of other more cost-effective wireless solutions.

This paper examines the challenges of extending broadband to rural and remote regions, particularly as posed by 5G technology in terms of installation cost, availability of spectrum, and other factors that may influence availability and affordability of broadband in rural regions. It reviews proposals to transfer spectrum currently used for fixed terrestrial and satellite broadband to 5G, and implications for service availability, quality, and pricing. It also examines implications for existing community and rural WISPs (wireless internet service providers) and other entrepreneurs and organizations that may want to offer broadband in rural areas.

These issues are addressed through analysis of policy drivers to expedite investment in 5G (e.g. to keep up with other countries implementing 5G and to take advantage of purported economic benefits of 5G) and the resulting rush to reallocate spectrum for 5G. It includes a case study of current Canadian government efforts to reallocate spectrum for 5G from fixed satellite services, still critical for provision of communication services in the far North, as an example of how 5G spectrum policies may affect rural communities and small service providers.

The paper proposes criteria for reallocating rural spectrum that would not endanger current broadband delivery to rural and remote regions. It concludes with lessons from the case study and recommendations for policy makers facing the challenges of formulating policies for 5G within a context of commitments to provide universal access to broadband, including in rural unserved and underserved regions.


Moderators
JW

Jason Whalley

Northumbria University

Speakers
HH

Heather Hudson

University of Alaska Anchorage


Friday September 20, 2019 11:05am - 11:30am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:05am

The Rewards of Municipal Broadband: An Econometric Analysis of the Labor Market
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Worried about being left behind in the Digital Age, a few hundred municipalities have chosen to construct and operate high-speed Internet networks. Above all else, it is the impacts on the labor market—i.e., the promise of “more jobs”—that form the policy justification for these municipal investments, though evidence of such effects is informal and anecdotal. In this article, we offer (to our knowledge) the first statistical evidence on the effects on labor market outcomes of municipal broadband systems. Using data obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, we apply the Difference-in-Differences estimator, augmented with Coarsened Exact Matching and the wild bootstrap, to quantify the economic impact, if any, of the county-wide government-owned network (“GON”) in Chattanooga Tennessee on labor market outcomes. Across a variety of empirical models, we find no payoffs in the labor market from the city’s broadband investments. An automotive plant built in the area is, however, found to substantially increase automobile manufacturing employment. Since Chattanooga’s system is an overbuild of multiple private providers, we stress that our findings may not be generalized to areas where broadband services are not available absent the municipal system. Also, our results cannot speak to the benefits of high-speed Internet services generally, since broadband Internet service was and remains available in Chattanooga absent the municipal system. 


Moderators
MW

Mark Walker

CableLabs

Speakers
GF

George Ford

The Pheonix Center
AS

Alan Seals

Auburn University


Friday September 20, 2019 11:05am - 11:30am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

11:05am

Quantified Global Broadband Strategies for Connecting Unconnected Communities
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Delivering prosperity to all requires efficient and equitable access to infrastructure. This is certainly true for digital infrastructure which is now essential for both societal and economic development, as the internet provides a range of new opportunities for (monetary and non-monetary) value creation. Surprisingly, our understanding of how to connect people to the internet is largely based on local or national case studies, as opposed to any systematic unifying assessment. Indeed, the existing tools and data available to decision makers is scant with most approaches treating countries as homogeneous units without providing the sub-national comparative economic assessment of different digital infrastructure strategies. Reflecting spatial heterogeneity in engineering-economic models is essential and can help prioritise limited financial resources to different locations based on the cost of delivering connectivity. Hence, the aim of this paper is to develop a globally-scalable assessment framework which can be applied to any country to support national and international policy making on narrowing the digital divide for 4G connectivity. Such an approach is applied here to Uganda, where the strategies tested include both passive and active infrastructure sharing (‘neutral hosting’) in rural locations to reduce costs, as well as quantifying the efficiency of fixed fibre versus microwave backhaul technologies. The globally-scalable software developed contributes the necessary tools for undertaking continental, or even global, digital infrastructure assessment.


Moderators
NT

Nicol Turner-Lee

Brookings Institution

Speakers
EO

Edward Oughton

University of Oxford


Friday September 20, 2019 11:05am - 11:38am
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

11:05am

Critical Communication Infrastructures and Huawei
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Recently, there have been growing cyber-safety concerns over telecom equipment made by the Chinese vendor Huawei. This has led many countries to ban Huawei from supplying equipment for building the next generation of mobile networks, 5G. Responses from mobile operators and the telecom community in general have been mixed. For instance, many European mobile operators have stated that these concerns are overblown and that such a ban would delay 5G rollout by two to three years in the best case. Moreover, some operators have directly questioned the ability of the other vendors to timely deliver a complete 5G network. However, these claims have mostly not been grounded in empirical data. This paper takes a multi-perspective approach to investigating this problem empirically. We start by categorizing responses from different countries to using Huawei equipment in 5G. We then analyze the importance and readiness of Huawei for supplying 5G equipment. This analysis is based on contributions to standards and patents. We also present a conceptual risk analysis framework to qualitatively evaluate the ability of a single vendor to cause considerable damage to critical communication infrastructures. This model aims at exploring a set of relevant axis. More specifically, we look at potential for harm in different political climates that is peace, crisis and war. Another axis is whether banning a particular vendor from supplying equipment for the upcoming mobile networks generation is useful without having a backward compatible ban. A third axis is the ability of a vendor to cause harm as a function of the type of supplied equipment, for example radio towers vs network management systems. Combining the analysis of readiness for supplying 5G and potential for causing harm allows us to roughly estimate the likely impact that a complete ban would have on 5G rollout in different parts of the world. We find that such a ban can possibly delay 5G by two years or more for operators with high dependence on Huawei. Consequently, we explore potential approaches that would both reduce vendor-related risk and do not significantly delay the rollout of 5G. These include heterogeneous multi-vendor deployments, equipment verification and testing, international collaboration as well as signing non-aggression treaties. Unfortunately, there is no technological solution that fully remedy this problem. Combining technical solutions with efforts to build trust between countries, enforce existing alignments or create new ones seems a promising way forward.


Moderators
HG

Hernan Galperin

University of Southern California

Speakers
OL

Olav Lysne

Simula Metropolitan CDE
AE

Ahmed Elmokashfi

Simula Metropolitan CDE
NN

Niels Nagelhus Schia

Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI)
LG

Lars Gjesvik

Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI)
KF

Karsten Friis

Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI)


Friday September 20, 2019 11:05am - 11:38am
Y115 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:05am

Old School Goes Online: Exploring Fiduciary Obligations of Care and Loyalty in the Platforms Era
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

The concept of information fiduciaries has received considerable attention in recent years, as one way to impose greater societal obligations on Web-based entities. This paper seeks to probe the information fiduciaries concept, as a useful entrée into a broader discussion of how to bring longstanding legal institutions into the online digital world.

This paper has five primary objectives. First, it will describe the information fiduciary (IF) model, as laid out by scholars Jack Balkin and Jonathan Zittrain, and criticized recently by Lina Khan and David Pozen. Second, it will undertake a deeper dive into the basics of the common law of fiduciary obligations, including the twin duties of care and of loyalty. Third, the paper will examine the information fiduciaries concept from the standpoint of traditional common law and modern-day commentary.

Fourth, the paper will explore a proposed alternative legal model, the “digital trustmediary” (or DTM), with entrusted entities voluntarily acting under a heightened fiduciary duty of loyalty to their clients. This DTM model will be posited as a viable response to the current Web ecosystem, which is presided over by online platforms extracting and analyzing end user data in the absence of express fiduciary obligations.

The paper concludes by suggesting ways to meld together the two different but complementary fiduciary approaches in the context of Web-based entities. Consistent with the author’s prior written work on functional openness, the overarching intention is to breathe productive new life into old school legal doctrines. 


Moderators
BE

Bronwyn E. Howell

Victoria University of Wellington

Speakers
RW

Richard Whitt

GLIA Foundation


Friday September 20, 2019 11:05am - 11:38am
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

11:30am

Not Over My Backyard: The Regulatory Conflict between 5G Rollout and Environmental and Historic Preservation
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

The near-future rollout of the 5G cellular network will create new issues in how land is used for the placement of telecommunications equipment and infrastructure. As opposed to the large and widely-spaced antenna towers for previous networks, 5G will require hundreds of thousands of smaller transceivers, closely spaced together and placed on telephone poles, buildings, trees, and other possibly intrusive places.

In the United States, some localities have begun to resist the near-future proliferation of such facilities, and questions have arisen about conflicts with federal laws on environmental and historic preservation. In 2018, the Federal Communications Commission declared proactively that its own statutory responsibilities for rapid and unfettered development of networks will be applied to the 5G rollout, and all or most land use restrictions that may slow down the rollout will be preempted by telecommunications law.

This paper conducts a critical policy analysis of the FCC’s current policies toward the 5G rollout and any possible land use restrictions on the construction of 5G facilities, combined with traditional legal research on past jurisprudence on land use by telecommunications firms and how precedents can be applied to the near-future 5G rollout. The paper concludes that the current legal environment is stacked in favor of rapid rollout, and those who disfavor that rollout for environmental, safety, or aesthetic reasons will have little recourse with the FCC or the courts. 


Moderators
JW

Jason Whalley

Northumbria University

Speakers
BW

Benjamin W. Cramer

The Pennsylvania State University


Friday September 20, 2019 11:30am - 11:55am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:30am

What are the Economic Effects of Municipal Broadband?
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Does municipal broadband stimulate broadband adoption or employment growth? I conduct an empirical study of American towns that have built municipal networks to answer this question. Using data from the FCC’s Form 477 and the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey,I track broadband deployment, adoption, and employment statistics for these towns from 2013 to 2017. A town’s decision to install a municipal network in the first place is not random, however. To deal with selection effects, I apply Coarsened Exact Matching to ordinary least squares regression to compare results from the treatment group with a weighted control group of similar towns. I also apply two-stage least squares regression with instrumental variable analysis to deal with endogeneity in the decision to build. I do not find evidence that municipal broadband yields benefits in broadband subscription rates or employment growth.

Moderators
MW

Mark Walker

CableLabs

Speakers
SO

Sarah Oh

Technology Policy Institute


Friday September 20, 2019 11:30am - 11:55am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

11:38am

Building Our Own Bridges; How a Distressed Urban Neighborhood Bridges the Digital Divide
Click here for full paper

Abstract

Prior research on digital divides and inequalities demonstrates that those who have multiple Internet access points engage in broader and more capital-enhancing online uses (Dutton & Blank, 2013, 2014; Zillien & Hargittai, 2009). These capital-enhancing uses, in turn, can serve as one mechanism to help narrow socio-economic inequities in distressed communities. By understanding online behavior as it relates to different points of access such as mobile, home and public access, as well as different types of devices, such as desktops, laptops, and mobile phones, policy makers can take steps to narrow digital divides. This paper examines highly distressed urban communities in the city of Detroit, Michigan. Based on 525 telephone surveys of Detroit residents, this study uses a path modeling approach to examine the relationship between socio-economic variables, attitudes toward the internet, different points of access and devices, and different types of capital-enhancing Internet uses, such as e-commerce, looking for health information, reading the news and job seeking. Although home access has been dubbed the gold standard of going online in the past, we argue that policy makers can leverage and enhance existing modes of access such as mobile phones and public access to better facilitate capital-enhancing online activities.

Moderators
NT

Nicol Turner-Lee

Brookings Institution

Speakers
BR

Bianca Reisdorf

UNC Charlotte
LF

Laleah Fernandez

Michigan State University
avatar for Ruth Shillair, Ph.D.

Ruth Shillair, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Media & Information Studies, Michigan State University
Interests include: improving protections for individuals by improving cybersecurity, reducing digital divides, making cybersecurity/privacy usable.


Friday September 20, 2019 11:38am - 12:11pm
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

11:38am

Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Internet Domain Name Arbitration Cases: A Cross-National Comparison of the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

This study examined whether the presence of a Free Trade Agreement between the United States and a foreign country significantly affected the outcomes of Internet domain name dispute arbitration cases, conducted within the framework of the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy. Data were collected for approximately 2800 arbitration cases filed during the 2001-2019 period from ten countries, five with U.S. FTAs and five without. Therefore, this study sought to examine whether FTAs impact domain name arbitration cases. Logistic regression, with controls for additional variables, found that complainants are less likely to win in FTA countries. Separate analysis of high- and low-income countries found that the complainants’ win percentage is significantly reduced in the high-income countries while there was no impact in in low-income countries.


Moderators
HG

Hernan Galperin

University of Southern California

Speakers
BM

Bumgi Min

The Pennsylvania Stae University
RY

Ryan Young

The Pennsylvania State University
YB

Yang Bai

The Pennsylvania State University
JG

Jenna Grzeslo

State University of New York New Platz
KJ

Krishna Jayakar

The Pennsylvania State University


Friday September 20, 2019 11:38am - 12:11pm
Y115 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:38am

Regulation When Platforms are Layered
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

In previous papers, Lehr and Sicker (2018a,b) argued that the changing character of our telecommunications infrastructure called for a new regulatory approach, with a new Communications Act to define the duties and authorities of a reconceptualized FCC (what we call newFCC in this paper).  

Today's Internet ecosystem is comprised of multiple digital network platforms organized into a multi-layer architecture. Lower layer IP platforms provided by access and backbone ISPs collectively support the Internet, on which complementors can build higher-layer platforms, such as the platforms provided by powerful firms such as Google, Microsoft, Amazon, Facebook and Apple. These firms control and operate multiple platforms within the larger Internet ecosystem. When dominant platform providers pursue multi-platform strategies in an effort to capture or control a market, such strategies confound current methods for defining markets and assessing market power.

This paper draws on the layered platform nature of the Internet ecosystem, as described in Claffy and Clark (2014), to illustrate how this layered character of today’s Internet ecosystem calls for new regulatory authority. This paper draws on the layered platform model to scope the duties for an agency (or agencies) with sector-specific expertise.


Moderators
BE

Bronwyn E. Howell

Victoria University of Wellington

Speakers
KC

kc Claffy

University of California San Diego
WL

William Lehr

Massachussetts Institute of Technology
DC

David Clark

Massachussetts Institute of Technology
SB

Stephen Bauer

Massachussetts Institute of Technology


Friday September 20, 2019 11:38am - 12:11pm
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

11:55am

Imagining Future Cities: Design Guidelines for Wireless Small Cells in Urban Landscapes
Click here for full paper

Wireless towers with big antennas and large equipment shelters are decreasing as the primary type of wireless infrastructure in favor of more diversified designs, varying in size, network architecture, and capacity. The definitional boundary between typical macro sites of the 1990s and increasingly popular small cell networks are slowly blending as the backend architecture and the equipment on a site are designed to meet a greater variety of capacity and coverage needs through heterogeneous networks.  

As the design of wireless network architecture is changing, so are their appearance in our surrounding environment. As a result, municipal authorities are increasingly under pressure by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) and wireless carriers to adapt and evolve their siting and permitting practices to accommodate a variety of different types of facilities. This paper will evaluate how innovation in LTE and 5G equipment is changing the design of physical wireless networks, establish an understanding of ‘contextual appropriateness’ in the blending of new small cells with the previously built environment, and prescribe aesthetic design guidelines for improving people’s experience with new urban wireless facilities. 

The methodology will include identifying technological trajectories and possibilities in wireless small cell designs, categorization of existing available assets for their deployment, an analysis of contextual appropriateness, and the development of objective design principles that will facilitate structured guidelines for network deployment. First, the paper will consider how wireless network equipment is evolving in different types of network topologies. Second, as small cells are typically placed on poles, these deployments will be categorized based on commonly available vertical assets in the Rights of Way, types of street furniture available for small cell integration opportunities, and other types of design ideas that leverage existing structures. Third, the definition of contextual appropriateness will be examined through city planning and architectural integration principles and typical constraints within the urban landscape. This paper will heavily utilize visual examples of previously deployed designs to analyze their technological components, design elements, and methods of construction and composition. Many of these visual examples are available in FCC docket filings relating to the recent relevant proceedings (WT Docket 17-79 and related), as well as in many articles and online government resources. Fourth, this research will contribute to a systematic method of evaluating the quality of small cell designs on a methodical basis, replacing the existing common practice of relying on subjective, improvised, and often contradictory aesthetic preferences.  

The resulting design recommendations and architectural best practices will facilitate many local efforts to develop preferential guidelines that achieve long-term compromise between preserving the character of their community and advancing to the smart cities of the future. The guidelines will also promote a more positive public perception and a more welcoming attitude toward the widespread integration of wireless facilities. The way that wireless technology will become deployed in the future of a given urban neighborhood will become its history, its character, and its legacy for advanced technological systems yet to come.

Moderators
JW

Jason Whalley

Northumbria University

Speakers
IS

Irena Stevens

University of Colorado Boulder
DR

David Reed

University of Colorado Boulder


Friday September 20, 2019 11:55am - 12:20pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:55am

Predicting Broadband Expansion: An Analysis of Geographic and Demographic Influences
For full paper click here

High-speed Internet access (’broadband’) is available nearly everywhere in urban and suburban parts of the contiguous U.S. However, there are many rural areas which do not have broadband access yet. We implemented a machine learning framework consisting of multiple supervised models for accurately predicting broadband expansion using geographic and demographic data on a census block group level. We then utilized these models to gain an understanding of how these features relate to broadband expansion. Also, we discussed how this data must be considered differently when investigating unsubsidized broadband expansion rather than government subsidized expansion.

Understanding relationships between geographic and demographic features with respect to broadband speed and accessibility is reliant upon publicly available data provided by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), United States Census Bureau, and the Universal Service Administrative Company. The project included identifying, cleaning, and aggregating the data as well as creating a cloud-based-storage infrastructure with Google BigQuery.

We found that by considering geographic and demographic data, effective models can be constructed to both understand previous broadband expansion and predict future expansion. Notably, we found that road, housing and population density, winter temperature, and elevation are of significant importance in determining whether an area receives broadband.

Moderators
MW

Mark Walker

CableLabs

Speakers
EI

E.K. Itoku

Columbia University
AV

Aman Varma Mantena

Columbia University
AS

Aaron Sadholz

Columbia University
AZ

Anna Zhou

Columbia University
HS

Henning Schulzrinne

Columbia University


Friday September 20, 2019 11:55am - 12:20pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

12:11pm

Digital Skill Sets for Diverse Users: A Comparison Framework for Curriculum and Competencies
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

More governmental entities are supporting their residents in digital skill acquisition as part of their information and communications technology (ICT) strategies to foster digital inclusion and broadband adoption. Digital skills frameworks and curricula have been developed by community-based organizations, libraries, and companies, but there lacks a robust comparison between these resources to understand what specific skills they cover. The selection of skills and competencies covered by these trainings impacts the effectiveness of public and private investments in areas such as workforce training, education, and government application development. Understanding which skills are important and are being offered in training can help guide policy, investments and assessment. For this paper, University of Washington and the City of Seattle partnered together to identify and compare digital skills and competencies recommended by fifteen popular frameworks and curricula. This research can be used to adopt shared definitions and evaluation of skills, clarify education pathways, assess training programs, guide investments and policy, and identify important skills not currently addressed by popular resources.

For the review, we examined six digital skills and competency frameworks and nine digital skills curricula from the United States and Europe targeted at high school students or adults. We compared the skills covered across the frameworks and curricula to understand what digital literacy resources covered which skills for different learner needs. The resulting comparison identified a total of 74 distinct digital skills. We then placed these skills into ten separate categories: gateway or foundational skills (11 skills), communication (8), creation (8), device ownership (4), information skills (7), lifelong learning (3), mobile (6), online life (11), privacy and security (7), and workplace (9). Overall, frameworks covered more skills (median of 31) than curricula (median of 23) but individual curriculum covered certain topics more in-depth. We also discovered that only about half of the resources had accompanying assessments for individuals or training providers to measure skills progression. The result of this work is a tool for funders, governments, and training providers to help focus and improve their digital inclusion efforts. The research paper also recommends future action and collaborative efforts to clarify and align learning pathways, expand the application of the comparative tools, develop new training and competency standards, and guide investments in digital skills training and materials. 


Moderators
NT

Nicol Turner-Lee

Brookings Institution

Speakers
SW

Stacey Wedlake

University of Washington
KL

Karah Lothian

University of Washington
DK

David Keyes

City of Seattle


Friday September 20, 2019 12:11pm - 12:45pm
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

12:11pm

A Tale of Two Countries: Mobile Communications, the Internet and the Digital Economy in China and India
 Click here for full paper. 

Abstract

This paper focuses on the impact of the widespread penetration and use of intelligent mobile devices, particularly smartphones, married to broadband mobile networks, in China and India.China and India are the largest and second largest mobile markets in the world, with some 1.3 billion and 1.2 billion mobile subscriptions respectively. These two countries have leapfrogged directly into ubiquitous mobile communications networks, although an urban-rural gap remains in the deployment and use of broadband mobile networks. As mobile Internet use, combined with electronic transactions and payments, becomes the new norm, policymakers will need to formulate new policies to address challenges related to the large-scale migration of mobile users to broadband networks and the use of Internet-based transactional services. The authors discuss and compare strategies being used in China and India, and how these are affected by their different economic and digital ecosystems. We analyze what has worked, what did not, the problems encountered and whether there are lessons to be learned that are of general applicability, as well as for these two particular countries.

Moderators
HG

Hernan Galperin

University of Southern California

Speakers
KJ

Krishna Jayakar

The Pennsylvania State University
RJ

Rekha Jain

IIM Ahmedabad
PN

Prabir Neogi

Carleton University


Friday September 20, 2019 12:11pm - 12:45pm
Y115 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

12:11pm

What Are the Pro- and Anti-Competitive Claims Driving the European Commission’s Platform Policies? A Case Study Based Analysis of the European Commission's Take on Platform Cases
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

The European Commission’s digital single market policies are becoming increasingly concerned with the impact of so-called ‘platforms’ on competition in the internal market. Whereas the Commission acknowledges the contributions of platform companies to innovation and consumer welfare, it also sees actual and potential damages occurring from their powerful position. As such, the Commission aims to strengthen the enforcement of its competition law rules in this area. We do not focus on the actual outcome of the application of competition law, but more so on the claims made about the pro- and anti-competitive effects of platforms that inform both agenda-setting and actual decision-making. After analysing four case studies we came to the conclusion that the Commission, in these cases is (1) recognizing the platform circumstance as their focus is more on B2B relations rather than B2C; (2) focusing more on behavioural than structural effects; (3) finding it difficult to hand out the right mix of remedies in ex-ante regulation; (4) somewhat understanding of the impact of network effects; (5) quite complex in their analysis especially for software-based mergers. Finally, we observe that the Commission’s stance is largely inspired by legal and economic experts and public interest concerns are largely missing from the debate.


Moderators
BE

Bronwyn E. Howell

Victoria University of Wellington

Speakers
AA

Adelaida Afilipoaid

imec-SMIT-VUB
KD

Karen Donders

Vrije Universiteit Brussel
PB

Pieter Ballon

Vrije Universiteit Brussel


Friday September 20, 2019 12:11pm - 12:45pm
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

12:20pm

5G and Net Neutrality
Click here for full paper

Industry observers have raised the possibility that European network neutrality regulations may obstruct the deployment of 5G. To assess those claims, this Chapter describes the key technologies likely to be incorporated into 5G, including millimeter wave band radios, massive multiple input/multiple output (MIMO), ultra-densification, multiple radio access technologies (multi-RAT), and support for device-to-device (D2D) and machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity. It then reviews the business models likely to be associated with 5G, including network management through biasing and blanking, an emphasis on business-to-business (B2B) communications, and network function virtualization/network slicing. It then lays out the network neutrality regulations created by the EU in 2015 as well as the nonbinding interpretive guidelines issued by the Body of Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communication (BEREC) in 2016 and assesses how they will be applied to 5G. Network neutrality’s impact on 5G will likely to be determined by the way that the exceptions for reasonable traffic management and specialised services are interpreted. A broad interpretation should accommodate network slicing and other new business models needed to support the deployment of 5G, while a narrow interpretation could restrict innovation and investment.

Moderators
JW

Jason Whalley

Northumbria University

Speakers
JL

Jesse Lambert

University of Pennsylvania
CY

Christopher Yoo

University of Pennsylvania


Friday September 20, 2019 12:20pm - 12:45pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

12:20pm

How Data Gaps (re)Make Rural Broadband Gaps
Click here for full paper

Abstract

This paper examines challenges to evidence-based decision-making in the design and implementation of rural broadband investment programs. Our focus is on Canada, but similar challenges are evident in the international literature. Based on proprietary telecommunication provider datasets, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunication Commission (CRTC) estimates that broadband services with advertised speeds that meet its basic universal service targets (50 Mbps download and 10 Mbps upload) are available to 84 percent of households in Canada. In rural areas however, services that meet CRTC’s speed targets are available to 37 percent of households.Moreover, effective speeds and service quality levels that suppliers deliver and users experience tend to fall well below the government’s aspirational targets. In response to demand for better broadband, a variety of initiatives are directing public investment to the deployment of regional and rural broadband networks, which are typically owned and operated by private companies. There remains a serious lack of relevant data and its effective use in rural broadband strategies and project management. Evidence from the literature suggest that this affects the degree and quality of geo-spatial and econometric analysis resulting in a limited empirical basis to allocate scarce public investments, engage consumers/communities, and assess the outcomes of rural broadband initiatives ex post. While investments in rural connectivity have vastly increased in recent years in Canada, this paper questions if the body of knowledge to inform these initiatives has grown sufficiently to ensure their effectiveness and sustainability. With examples from southern Ontario, Canada, we examine the relevant literature, characterize the broadband data challenge and discuss the importance of proprietary provider data cross-referenced with user experience data.

Moderators
MW

Mark Walker

CableLabs

Speakers
RR

Reza Rajabiun

Ryerson University
HH

Helen Hambly

University of Guelph


Friday September 20, 2019 12:20pm - 12:45pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

12:45pm

Lunch and Keynote
Congressman Jerry McNerney was sworn into office on January 4, 2007.  He is proud to represent California’s 9th District, which includes a large portion of San Joaquin County in the Central Valley as well as parts of Contra Costa and Sacramento Counties.
McNerney was inspired to run for Congress by his son Michael, who in response to the attacks of September 11, sought and received a commission in the Air Force. Michael suggested that his Dad serve his country by running for Congress. With a deep sense of duty and his family’s support, McNerney began his journey to Congress.
Congressman McNerney is honored to serve on the Committee on Energy and Commerce, the oldest standing legislative committee in the U.S. House of Representatives. The committee is vested with broad jurisdiction on a number of issues including telecommunications, consumer protection, food and drug safety, public health research, environmental quality, energy policy, and interstate and foreign commerce. The Congressman is also proud to be a member of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.
McNerney, who has his Ph.D. in mathematics, served several years as an engineering contractor to Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico. In 1990 McNerney moved with his family to California, accepting a senior engineering position with U.S. Windpower, Kenetech. McNerney later began working as an energy consultant for PG&E, FloWind, the Electric Power Research Institute, and other utility companies. Prior to his election to Congress, he formed a start-up company to manufacture wind turbines. During his career in wind energy, McNerney’s work contributed to saving the equivalent of approximately 30 million barrels of oil, or 8.3 million tons of carbon dioxide.
McNerney and Mary, his wife of 40 years, have three grown children. Their oldest son, Michael, is a reserve officer in the U.S. Air Force and a graduate of American University with a degree in law. Daughter Windy received a Ph.D. from Notre Dame in neuroscience and is now working on the biochemistry of neurodegenerative disorders as a fellow at the VA Palo Alto, and also teaches at Stanford University. Their youngest son, Greg, received his Ph.D. in biophysics and is working as an engineer at Intel Corporation.


Friday September 20, 2019 12:45pm - 2:15pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

2:15pm

Mapping the Digital Divide: Spatial Analysis Approaches to Broadband Competition and Digital Inequality
This panel brings together researchers that are pushing the boundaries of digital inequality research by examining differences in access to infrastructure, adoption, and socioeconomic outcomes through spatial lenses. A core common thread is the use of geocoded data to theorize how spatial factors and spillover effects interact with the traditional determinants of digital inequality at the individual and household levels. Panelists will also discuss the limitations of existing datasets as well as much needed improvements to data collection instruments at the local, state and federal levels, including FCC Form 477 and the Internet use questions from the American Community Survey and the Current Population Survey.

Moderators
Speakers
KF

Kenneth Flamm

University of Texas at Austin
HG

Hernan Galperin

University of Southern California
KM

Karen Mossberger

Arizona State University
WD

William Dutton

Oxford Internet Institute


Friday September 20, 2019 2:15pm - 3:45pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

2:15pm

Mobile Consolidation at an Antitrust Crossroads
This panel will consider proper antitrust enforcement of mobile mergers as consolidation in the industry reaches new heights. What is the proper balance of weakened price competition against the potential for scale efficiencies and disruptive innovation, especially as carriers embark on next-generation wireless technology?  The discussion will draw lessons from several 4-to-3 mobile mergers that have been approved (with conditions) or denied in Europe and other developed countries.  We will explore the efficacy of spectrum divestitures and the sharing of wireless infrastructure to rectify competitive injury.  

Moderators
GW

Glenn Woroch

University of California Berkeley

Speakers
TH

Thomas Hazlett

Clemson University
GS

Gigi Sohn

Georgetown University
MC

Michelle Connolly

Duke University


Friday September 20, 2019 2:15pm - 3:45pm
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

2:15pm

Policy Incentives to Encourage Spectrum Efficiency
This panel will question whether traditional policy tools provide the correct incentives to develop efficient systems and explore whether other approaches may drive to more effective results. Specifically, the panel will ask the following questions: Do current spectrum policies reward the use of advanced wireless technology that improves spectrum efficiency and enables sharing both within and across platforms? Going forward, could policy be better used to encourage spectrum users to develop more spectrally efficient technologies? Are there carrots or sticks that the government could employ to change the economic incentives to share spectrum? Could innovative policy tools better align stated objectives with actual practice?

Moderators
avatar for Peter Tenhula

Peter Tenhula

Deputy Associate Administrator, NTIA

Speakers
CS

Charlyn Stanberry

Chief of Staff for Rep. Yvette Clarke
CR

Charla Rath

formerly Verizon


Friday September 20, 2019 2:15pm - 3:45pm
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

3:45pm

Coffee Break
Friday September 20, 2019 3:45pm - 4:10pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:10pm

Content and Access Bundling: Simulating Complex Scenarios
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

The burgeoning digital economy is characterized by providers offering their products and services to consumers in bundles. Consequently, firms, policy-makers, competition authorities and courts are challenged to consider the actual and possible effects of bundling on profits, consumer and total welfare, sometimes in advance of products being brought to market. Current literature provides some guidance for evaluating possible outcomes (Abdallah 2018; Hennig-Thurau and Houston 2018; Simon and Fassnacht 2018). However, theoretical tractability requires most models to make highly stylized assumptions rarely observed or anticipated in the real-life situations motivating inquiry.

Different ways of evaluating these complex cases are required. Howell and Potgieter (2017), Howell and Potgieter (2018b), Howell and Potgieter (2018a), and Howell and Potgieter (2019) propose the use of numerical analysis of the output of discrete simulation models capturing the specific characteristics of real-life cases offers an alternative means of evaluation. They successively develop a competition model in which:

* the firms, consumers and differentiated products are finite in number;
prices are discrete and not continuous;

* consumers may purchase multiple items in a single product category.

A particular strength of these models are that they mimic the price-setting strategy adopted by firms facing uncertainty about the distributions of consumer preferences for the items. Variants of the model have been used to provide insights into real-life business situations where firms have limited opportunities to sample information about a market where (for example) firms offer differentiated Internet access (e.g. cable and copper/fiber) and content offers (e.g. Netflix, Spotify, other proprietary video content products, gaming, home security monitoring) both stand-alone and in bundles.

In Howell and Potgieter (2019) the authors generated a set of consumer willingness-to-pay values for the two products from random (normal) distributions. In this paper, we explore the expected behavior when the underlying distribution of both products is drawn from an asymmetrical long-tail distribution. By varying the parameters of the distribution from which the products' WTPs are drawn, we can explore how bundle pricing offers might vary in several distinct scenarios. 


Moderators
SE

Silvia Elaluf Calderwood

Syracuse University

Speakers
BE

Bronwyn E. Howell

Victoria University of Wellington
PH

Petrus H. Potgieter

University of South Africa


Friday September 20, 2019 4:10pm - 4:43pm
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

4:10pm

The Hidden Standards War: Economic Factors Affecting IPv6 Deployment,
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

The data communications protocol supporting the Internet (IPv4) is almost 40 years old, and its 32-bit address space is too small for the global Internet. A new, “next generation” Internet Protocol (IPv6), has a much larger, 128 bit address space. But the new protocol is not backwards compatible with the existing Internet. For the past 20 years, the Internet technical community has been trying to migrate the entire Internet to the new standard.

This study addresses important but often overlooked questions about the technical evolution of the Internet: Will the world converge on IPv6? Will IPv6 die out? Or will we live in a mixed world for the foreseeable future?

The research offers a clear-eyed, economically-grounded study of IPv6’s progress and prospects. Many promoters of IPv6 sincerely believe that the new standard must succeed if the Internet is to grow, and assume that the transition is inevitable because of the presumed depletion of the IPv4 address resources. However, by examining the associated network effects, developing the economic parameters for transition, and modeling the underlying economic forces which impact network operator decisions, the study paints a more complex, nuanced picture. The report concludes that legacy IPv4 will coexist with IPv6 indefinitely. A variety of conversion technologies, and more efficient use of IPv4 addresses using NAT, will support a “mixed world” of the two standards for the foreseeable future. 


Moderators
WL

William Lehr

Massachussetts Institute of Technology

Speakers
BK

Brenden Kuerbis

Georgia Institute of Technology
MM

Milton Mueller

Goergia Institute of Technology


Friday September 20, 2019 4:10pm - 4:43pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

4:10pm

Increasing Low-Income Broadband Adoption through Private Incentives
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

A long-standing public policy goal has been ensuring that almost all citizens are connected to some minimum level of communications services. This paper evaluates Comcast’s “voluntary commitment” to introduce a low-income broadband program that Comcast has branded “Internet Essentials (IE).” We use data from the U.S. Census Current Population Survey (CPS) and the National Broadband Map and a differences-in-differences approach to evaluate the program’s effects on subscription rates for eligible households.

Between 2011, when the program began, and 2015, broadband adoption by eligible households increased by more among households that lived in areas in which Comcast provided broadband internet service than among households that lived in areas served by other cable providers.
Using a difference-in-differences approach, we estimate that about 66 percent of IE subscribers represent true increases in low-income adoption as a result of the program, with the remaining subscribers being households that switched from a competitor and households that would have subscribed as part of a general upward trend in adoption.  We find that even among low-income households, broadband demand is relatively inelastic. 


Moderators
Speakers
GR

Greg Rosston

Stanford University
SW

Scott Wallsten

Technology Policy Institute


Friday September 20, 2019 4:10pm - 4:43pm
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

4:10pm

Disaster Privacy/Privacy Disaster
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Privacy expectations during disasters differ significantly from non-emergency situations. Recent scandals, such as inappropriate disclosures from FEMA to contractors, illustrate that tradeoffs between emergencies and privacy must be made carefully. Increased use of social technologies to facilitate communication and support first responders provide more opportunities for privacy infringements, despite increased regulation of disaster information flows to government agencies and with trusted partners of the government. This paper specifically explores the actual practices followed by popular disaster apps. Our empirical study compares content analysis of privacy policies and government agency policies, structured by the contextual integrity (CI) framework, with static and dynamic app analysis documenting the personal data they send. We identify substantive gaps between regulation and guidance, privacy policies, and information flows generated by apps/platforms, resulting from ambiguities and exploitation of exemptions. Results also indicate gaps between governance and practice, including: (1) many apps ignore transmission principles self-defined in policy; (2) while some policies state they “might” access location data under certain conditions, those conditions are not met as 12 apps included in our study capture location immediately upon download; and (3) not all third parties data recipients are identified in policy, including instances that violate expectations of trusted third parties. We visually map disaster information flows during disasters and around third party and government apps within the disaster response domain, and emphasize information exchanges between specific actors and the differences between actual flows of personal information and regulatory and policy specifications. 


Moderators
Speakers
MS

Madelyn Sanfilppo

Princeton University
YS

Yan Shvartzshnaider

New York University
IR

Irwin Reyes

University of California Berkeley
HN

Helen Nissenbaum

Cornell Tech
SE

Serge Egelman

University of California Berkeley


Friday September 20, 2019 4:10pm - 4:43pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:10pm

The Impact of Spectrum Prices on Consumers
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

The radio spectrum that governments license to mobile operators is central to the quality and affordability of mobile broadband services. However, some government policies – inadvertently or not – result in high prices being paid to access spectrum. This empirical study assesses whether high spectrum prices, and other aspects of spectrum management, had an impact on consumer welfare in 64 countries during the 2010-2017 period. Our empirical strategy isolates the impact of spectrum pricing on consumer outcomes by applying an instrumental variable model and also by considering the ‘affordability’ of spectrum as a percentage of operator revenues. We find strong evidence that higher spectrum prices cause negative consumer outcomes, including lower coverage levels and slower data speeds. These findings have important ramifications for governments and regulators – particularly those betting on 4G and 5G as enablers of economic growth and sustainable development. 


Moderators
KO

Kelly O'Keefe

U.S. State Department

Speakers
avatar for Kalvin Bahia

Kalvin Bahia

Principal Economist, GSMA
Working as an Economist in GSMA Intelligence, I am responsible for producing economic and statistical analysis on regulation, competition, spectrum and development topics. Before joining the GSMA, I worked as a competition and regulatory economist at the UK telecoms regulator (Ofcom... Read More →


Friday September 20, 2019 4:10pm - 4:43pm
Y115 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:43pm

Online Video: Content Models, Emerging Market Structure, and Regulatory Policy Solutions
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

This paper, based on a much more extensive book that is being completed this summer, proposes a regulatory system for the emerging online video medium. Huge Changes are coming for culture and society, as TV moves from slow change to Moore’s Law dynamics. Cloud platform providers, which will be vertically integrated into content and data, will dominate the system. The reasons are the fundamental economics of such operations, plus the advantages of data. The changes that are upon us also require us to conceive of a regulatory system for this new environment.

Cloud-TV will transform content into experience. Its leading edge will be interactive, immersive, and individualized. This will affect Advertising and Marketing Applications, as well as Entertainment: film, games, sports, adventure, documentaries, adult applications. In consequence, Cloud TV will be an enormously powerful medium in social, cultural, and economic terms. The paper will analyze these impacts, and the problems.

The emerging medium will also be dominated by a few organizations, and will cause significant societal problems (as well as positives).

1. The new media system will have multiple problems, some traditional ones in new settings, and some new ones.

2. The paper will identify the problems and show that most them will not be resolved through competition.

3. Governments, in addressing these issues, will find that they can regulate most effectively by delegating the policing of problems to the intermediate content platforms and infrastructure platforms. This was discussed at last year’s TPRC.

4. Furthermore, a more open and competitive media system will make it more difficult to deal with these problems than a more concentrated system.

5. Arguably more important for open and diverse media is to deal with market power. The better alternative model would be to require a system of unbundling of the segments with market power, and their accessibility and interoperation by independent providers. That model is the unbundled model with access rights/links
.
6. Platforms with significant media market power (SMPP) accessed by right hold only limited liability for violations by those who use such access. They cannot impose restrictions beyond those of the law, or differentiate between content providers, beyond purely technical reasons.

7. The paper will work this out in considerable detail, and make specific regulatory recommendations


Moderators
SE

Silvia Elaluf Calderwood

Syracuse University

Speakers
EN

Eli Noam

Columbia University


Friday September 20, 2019 4:43pm - 5:16pm
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

4:43pm

How DNS over HTTPS is Reshaping Privacy, Performance, and Policy in the Internet Ecosystem
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Internet communication relies on the Domain Name System (DNS), which maps a human-readable Internet destination to an IP address. A recent proposal for transmitting DNS over HTTPS (DoH) enhances client privacy by tunneling DNS over secure HTTP (HTTPS). In this paper, we explore the policy implications of consolidated DoH by systematically analyzing the marketplace, measure its performance effects, and investigate how it affects the different stakeholders, including consumers. We enumerate the agents in the marketplace as well as their market incentives. We then examine the performance of DoH through client-based measurements compare unencrypted DNS with DoH. As DoH deployments change the competitive landscape of the market, we explore their effect on other operators, ISPs, and broadband access at the last mile, as well as the potential regulatory and policy implications of DoH deployments.


Moderators
WL

William Lehr

Massachussetts Institute of Technology

Speakers
PS

Paul Schmitt

Princeton University
TC

Tithi Chattopadhyay

Princeton University
KB

Kevin Borgolte

Princeton University
JH

Jordan Holland

Princeton University
AH

Austin Hounsel

Princeton University
NF

Nick Feamster

Princeton University
MK

Mihir Kshirsagar

Princeton University


Friday September 20, 2019 4:43pm - 5:16pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

4:43pm

Any Sirious Concerns Yet? - An Empirical Analysis of Voice Assistants’ Impact on Consumer Behavior and Assessment of Emerging Policy Challenges
Click for full paper

Abstract

Voice interfaces have proliferated recently. Next to dedicated voice assistants such as Amazon’s Alexa, Samsung’s Bixby, Microsoft’s Cortana, Google’s Assistant and Apple’s Siri, a multitude of white label task-specific voice interfaces has been built into cars, home appliances and other devices. Despite their potentially profound impact on the internet ecosystem, there is little empirical evidence on how consumers use voice interfaces that is used to identify emerging policy challenges. To provide such insights, we draw on an analysis of the current capabilities of voice assistants, a literature review of usage patterns and potential associated concerns and a representative survey of 3,184 internet users in Germany. Our analysis focuses on five voice assistants (Alexa, Bixby, Cortana, Google Assistant and Siri) rather than white label task-specific device interfaces.

Our results indicate that voice assistants are indeed pervasive. The vast majority of respondents (85%) have at least one device at home featuring one of the five voice assistants above as a pre-installed default. However, only 26% of respondents currently use at least one voice assistant. Another 13% discontinued interacting with voice assistants, while the remaining 46% of internet users who could use a voice assistant without installing an additional app or updating their operating system have never done so.

Given the network effects and feedback loops associated with the ecosystems that the tech firms behind the most relevant voice assistants have built over recent years, significant leaps in voice assistants’ capabilities may be expected. Combined with low switching costs and the variety of devices enabling the installation of a voice assistant or having one installed already, a competitive edge for one or two actor(s) may favor (a) new, potentially very powerful gatekeeper(s). Today, 78% of voice assistant users in Germany rely solely on one assistant.

How concerning such a new gatekeeper is to policymakers and regulators depends substantially on the tasks it fulfills. Our analysis of available voice assistant functions points to ten common functions across Alexa, Bixby, Cortana, Google Assistant and Siri. The most commonly used function is ‘seeking information online’. Around two thirds of voice assistant users stated to use this function. A new gatekeeper may thus indeed have an impact on the information that we find online. Notably, of those who use more than one voice assistant 67% also draw on at least two services for their information searches. Otherwise, favorite functions vary substantially. Alexa is predominantly used to play music (65%). Google Assistant users focus on controlling the devices on which the assistant is installed (36%), while Siri users favor the call function (48%). For the less pervasive assistants Bixby and Cortana setting up reminders is the most favorite function (51% and 33%) besides information search.

While our results do not imply an immediate need for action, policymakers and regulators ought to be acutely aware of the dynamic development of voice assistants, especially given the potential of an unprecedented adoption curve and their crucial role within ecosystems.

Moderators
Speakers
avatar for René Arnold

René Arnold

WIK and Bruegel
CH

Christian Hildebrandt

Goethe University Frankfurt
AS

Anna Schneider

Fresenius University of Applied Sciences


Friday September 20, 2019 4:43pm - 5:16pm
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

4:43pm

Life, Law, and New Privacy in a World of Illusions and Manipulations
Click here for full paper

Abstract

A major concern about the rapidly progressing erosion of privacy is that it enables manipulation in political, economic, and social realms. While this concern is well grounded, the technologies that magnify these threats also offer promising means for ameliorating the damage to human society they cause. Although greatly increased manipulation by individuals and organizations will surely be a notable feature of society in the future, it is already giving rise to a new kind of privacy. The information opacity necessary for the new forms of privacy is arising and will be magnified through the use of obfuscation, deepfakes, and related methods that are rapidly improving and becoming more widely available.

Moderators
Speakers
AO

Andrew Odyzko

University of Minnesota


Friday September 20, 2019 4:43pm - 5:16pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:43pm

Market Disputes | Legal, Social, and Long-Term Implications for an Evolving Spectrum Market
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Enforcement, adjudication, and litigation enacted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) resides at an interesting intersection between traditional law and normative common property resource agreements – similar to those in common pool resources. Despite being granted specific legal powers by Congress, the FCC works to dissolve contentions that arise between spectrum incumbents through market dispute resolutions mediated through their Enforcement Bureau’s Market and Dispute Resolution Division (MDRD). The MDRD mediates and adjudicates a myriad of complaint types brought on by “market participants, entities, and organizations against common carriers, commercial and mobile data service providers, and/or utility pole operators” (EB-Market Disputes and Resolution Division, n.d.).  

The MDRD’s decision to promote resolutions between complainants and defendants is unique in terms of traditional enforcement mechanisms – especially as a primary regulatory agency. The initiative to have stakeholders mediate, negotiate, and ultimately settle their disputes on their level is reminiscent of dispute remediation tactics observed in common pool resource environments. To investigate this approach to enforcement, adjudication, and litigation further, we utilize the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework developed by Elinor Ostrom. Used to scaffold a myriad of policy, regulatory, and traditional CPRs, the IAD Framework incites a unique investigation into the agreements that arise between disputing parties.

Our work shows that state/government regulation is not explicitly required to foster an enforcement environment. Primarily, this provides a foundation for our work regarding automated enforcement mechanisms, whereby, third party agents through automation can facilitate enforcement effectively within an increasingly overutilized spectrum market. 


Moderators
KO

Kelly O'Keefe

U.S. State Department

Speakers
SR

Stephanie Rose

University of Pittsburgh
MW

Martin Weiss

University of Pittsburgh
TZ

Taieb Zneti

University of Pittsburgh
MG

Marcela Gomez

University of Pittsburgh
DD

Debarun Das

University of Pittsburgh
PB

Pedro Bustamante

University of Pittsburgh


Friday September 20, 2019 4:43pm - 5:16pm
Y115 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:16pm

What Unregulated Algorithm Industry Wants from New Digital Audience Measurement: Institutional Perspective on Personal Data Surveillance
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

This study attempted to serve a number of purposes. First, it has conceptualized data surveillance as purely rational institutional behavior. In making this case, we illustrated the two institutional perspectives – economic pressures toward fragmentation and personalization and how these create the incentive for better surveillance measurement technique. Developing these arguments, this study also illustrated evidential trend in which the locus of privacy protection in marketplace seems not only tenuous, but also incongruent with the public demand. Fundamentally, we present a useful conceptual framework for future studies in understanding personalization and surveillance, taking privacy into the market equation, and argue that the market economics may seem too crude to handle a delicate balance between privacy and surveillance.


Moderators
SE

Silvia Elaluf Calderwood

Syracuse University

Speakers
YJ

Yong Jin Park

Howard University


Friday September 20, 2019 5:16pm - 5:50pm
NT08 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

5:16pm

Navigating the Landscape of Programmable Networks: Looking beyond the Regulatory Status Quo
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

Digital transition processes are transforming industries, economies, and societies. Growing numbers of connected end-users and things and an evolving range of content, applications, and use cases emphasize the growing essentiality of dynamic, flexible, and scalable network service provision. Programmable networks provide an evolved spectrum of capabilities such as fine-grained steering of network traffic, customizable on-the-fly functions, and independence from network protocols and vendors. Not only do they promise a panoply of benefits due to increased flexibility, customizability, and agility. They also give rise to new challenges. In this paper, we conduct a forward-looking cross-disciplinary study to navigate the landscape of programmable networks. We provide a comprehensive overview of the evolution and the growing complexity of programmable networks and elucidate associated opportunities and challenges. From this, we derive insights into how regulatory frameworks and policies for the future Internet should be (re)designed.


Moderators
WL

William Lehr

Massachussetts Institute of Technology

Speakers
avatar for Apoorv Shukla

Apoorv Shukla

Research Assistant, TU Berlin
Bio:I am a Research Scientist with the Internet Network Architectures group at TU-Berlin where I am advised by Prof. Anja Feldmann. Prior to my current position, I obtained a Masters degree in Information Technology from the prestigious HKUST-Hong Kong. Previously, I have worked as... Read More →
VS

Volker Stocker

MPI-Informatics, Saarbrücken/TU Berlin


Friday September 20, 2019 5:16pm - 5:50pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

5:16pm

Public vs. Private Mobile Services: An Analysis of a Tortured History
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

The most important and widely used mobile service of our time, mobile broadband service, is now classified as a private mobile service. The service is clearly broadly offered to the public. How did it come to be classified as a private mobile service?

This paper undertakes a historical analysis of the relevant statutes and regulations from the 1940s through 2018. We start with the problem facing the FCC in the 1940s, when it attempted to create a framework for allocating spectrum to a long list of competing wireless services. We analyze how the statutory mandate to consider the public interest led the FCC to segregate non-governmental mobile services into public safety radio services, industrial radio services, domestic public radio services, and land transportation radio services. We examine why the FCC made a distinction between public mobile service and private mobile service, based on whether the service was common carriage, characterized by an offering to the public for a fee. We then examine the effect upon regulation of mobile services of the introduction in the 1950s and 1960s of pre-cellular mobile telephone services and paging services.

We turn next to the effect upon regulation of mobile services of the introduction in the 1970s and 1980s of cellular voice service. Cellular voice service dramatically changed the landscape of mobile service. We analyze why and how the shift in use of mobile service triggered corresponding changes in regulatory policy. In particular, we examine the competition for spectrum between public cellular service and private dispatch service, and how the FCC considered the public or private nature of the service in spectrum allocation decisions. We also examine why the FCC for the first time placed limitations on interconnection of private mobile services with the telephone network.

We then turn to Congressional action. We examine Congress’s attempt in 1982 to give statutory guidance on spectrum allocation. We analyze why and how Congress defined for the first time private land mobile service. In particular, we analyze the role of interconnection in that definition.

We examine the FCC’s ensuing Orders that had the effect of expanding private mobile services to include services offered to the public, and how that blurred the lines between private and public mobile services.

We then analyze Congress’s response in 1993, when it introduced new definitions of private and commercial mobile services, in an attempt to more clearly distinguish between private and public versions of similar mobile services. In particular, we examine how interconnection with the public switched network became a significant factor in the classification of private and commercial mobile services.

The paper concludes with a review of the recent arguments of whether mobile broadband Internet access service is a commercial mobile service or a private mobile service.  We hope that a better understanding of the history of private and public mobile services may lend insight into how mobile broadband service came to be classified as a private mobile service, as well as to whether such a classification is reasonable given that history. 


Moderators
Speakers
SJ

Scott Jordan

University of California Irvine


Friday September 20, 2019 5:16pm - 5:50pm
YT17 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

5:16pm

Have Your Privacy Cake and Eat It Too: How New Technologies May Help Resolve the Inherent Tension in the Privacy Policy Debate
Moderators
Speakers
MW

Mark Walker

CableLabs
BS

Brian Scriber

CableLabs


Friday September 20, 2019 5:16pm - 5:50pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:16pm

Spectrum sharing analysis for unlicensed use in 6 GHz using Risk-Informed Interference Assessment
Click here for full paper.

Abstract

In October of 2018, the FCC proposed new rules for opening 1.2 GHz of spectrum in the 6 GHz band, from 5925 to 7125 MHz, for unlicensed Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) devices. The objective is to allow WLAN in the 6 GHz band while sharing the spectrum with current incumbents. The traditional spectrum sharing approach relies on the worst-case scenario analysis of single events of severe consequences, regardless of their probability of occurrence, which leads to over-conservative use of the spectrum. Risk-Informed Interference Assessment (RIIA) is a quantitative approach that can be successfully applied for spectrum sharing analysis. Based on statistical analysis, RIIA estimates the probability and the consequence of interference. The objective is to allow flexible use of spectrum without being overprotective. It has been applied to a few coexistence studies in the last years and has shown great potential in providing informed insight to spectrum sharing analysis. To date, however, it has not been yet applied to coexistence studies in the 6 GHz band. In this work, we apply RIIA to analyze coexistence between WLAN and each type of incumbent service in this band and propose spectrum sharing mechanisms to reduce the probability of harmful interference.

To facilitate sharing in the 6 GHz band, the FCC has divided it into four sub-bands, from U-NII-5 to U-NII-8, and proposed mitigation rules for each of them depending on the incumbents. This band is allocated to Broadcast Auxiliary Service (BAS) and Cable Television Relay Service (CARS) fixed and mobile links, Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) and fixed point-to-point links. These systems use narrow beamwidth antennas located at elevated heights, while WLANs employ low-power transmitters, mostly indoors, and, typically, omnidirectional antennas at few meters above the ground, which suggests the possibility that little energy from the incumbent links is perceptible on the ground and vice versa. To investigate this hypothesis, we apply RIIA to quantify the level of risk and its consequences to both, incumbent links and WLANs devices.

Our analysis is based upon a three-step method. First, we make an inventory of all significant harmful interference hazards, in our case, 6 GHz Wi-Fi APs and incumbent links that could cause short-term or long-term co-channel interference to the incumbents and Wi-Fi devices, respectively. Second, we define the interference protection criteria for each of them as consequence metrics to characterize the severity of hazards. Finally, the likelihood and consequence of each hazard are analyzed. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we calculate the likelihood of downlink and aggregate interference from/to current incumbents to/from future WLANs and, using an interference protection criterion, determine if this interference can be tolerable. This approach provides detailed coexistence analysis between WLAN and the incumbent services in each 6 GHz sub-band using the RIIA methodology. The results of this analysis will provide decision makers with better information regarding the risks associated with the coexistence of these uses in the 6 GHz sub-bands.


Moderators
KO

Kelly O'Keefe

U.S. State Department

Speakers
NY

Nadia Yoza Mitsuishi

University of Colorado Boulder
PM

Peter Mathys

University of Colorado Boulder
DR

David Reed

University of Colorado Boulder


Friday September 20, 2019 5:16pm - 5:50pm
Y115 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

Gender Disparities in ICT Access & Usage: Ghana as a Case Study,
Speakers
GA

George Asante

Ghana University
FT

Fati Tahiru

Ho Tech University
SA

Samuel Agbesi

Aalborg University


Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

A new approach? Evidence accumulation and the evolving conceptualization of competition in Canadian telecom
Speakers
RR

Reza Rajabiun

Ryerson University
CM

Catherine Middleton

Ryerson University


Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

5:45pm

Balancing the Spectrum: Achieving Economic and Public Mission Objectives
Speakers
CK

Carolyn Kahn

MITRE Corporation


Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

Beyond Fake News: Toward a Theory of Socially Constructed Political Information Seeking
Speakers
NA

Nicole Alemanne

Valdosta State University


Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

Digital Security, Privacy and Trust: the three underpinnings of a Sustainable and Commercially Viable
Speakers
PN

Prabir Neogi

Carleton University
AC

Arthur Cordell

Carleton University


Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

E-Governance as Good Governance: ICT Policy and Adoption in the Developing World
Speakers
PA

Patience Akpan-Obong

Arizona State University


Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

Examining Mobile Broadband Transparency using the FCC’s Measuring Mobile Broadband Data
Speakers
SJ

Scott Jordan

University of California Irvine


Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

Fallow Fields or Unyielding Potential? An Examination of EBS Proposed Rulemaking Comments and the Public Interest.
Speakers
RC

Richelle Crotty

University of Texas at Austin
AS

Alexis Schrubbe

University of Texas at Austin


Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

5:45pm

Spectrum Value in a 5G World
Speakers

Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:45pm

Telehealth Usage in Rural Michigan
Speakers
CM

Chris McGovern

ConnectedNation Inc
EF

Eric Frederick

ConnectedNation Inc


Friday September 20, 2019 5:45pm - 6:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

6:45pm

Dinner and Keynote
Ms. Grace Koh is the U.S. Representative to ITU WRC -19 and Head of Delegation. She comes to the State Department from a partnership in DLA Piper LLP’s telecommunicationsgroup, where she represented technology and telecommunications companies before Congress and government agencies.
Before joining DLA Piper, Ms. Koh served as Special Assistant to the President for Technology, Telecom, and Cybersecurity Policy at the National Economic Council, coordinating policy and advising the White House on these matters. Ms. Koh previously served as Deputy Chief Counsel to the Subcommittee on Communications and Technology of the Energy and Commerce Committee in the U.S. House of Representatives. Her primary role was to advise the chairmen and committee members on policy and legal issues arising in the telecommunications and technology sectors.
Ms. Koh was previously Policy Counsel at Cox Enterprises, Inc.'s Public Policy Office, working on technology policies affecting the enterprise's Internet, cable, and broadcast properties. Ms. Koh joined Cox Enterprises after working in the communications group
at Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP. She holds a B.A. from Yale University and a J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School.

Speakers
GK

Grace Koh

U.S. Representative to the International Telecommunication Union World Radio Conference (ITU WRC-2019) and Head of Delegation



Friday September 20, 2019 6:45pm - 8:45pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC
 
Saturday, September 21
 

8:00am

Registration and Continental Breakfast
Saturday September 21, 2019 8:00am - 9:00am
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:00am

Open Data and the Core Competences of Government: Lessons from Flanders, Belgium
View full paper here

As part of the rhetoric surrounding the Smart City concept, cities are increasingly facing challenges related to data (management, governance, processing, storage, publishing etc.). The Smart Flanders program was initiated by the Flemish Government (Belgium) at the start of 2017 to research and support cities in this field. The goal of the program is to support the 13 so-called center cities in the Region (by and large the biggest cities) and a representation of the Flemish Community in the Brussels Region with defining and implementing a common open data policy. As part of the program, a “maturity check” was performed, evaluating the cities on a number of quantitative and qualitative parameters. This exercise laid to bare a number of challenges in the field of open data and led to a checklist that cities can employ to begin tackling them.

Moderators
AM

Aleecia McDonald

Carnegie Mellon University

Speakers
PB

Pieter Ballon

Vrije Universiteit Brussel
NW

Nils Walravens

Vrije Universiteit Brussel


Saturday September 21, 2019 9:00am - 9:33am
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:00am

Tolls on the Bridge Over the Digital Divide? An Economic and Regulatory Analysis of Over-the-Top Services in a Developing Market
View full paper here

Over-the-top (OTT) services are value-added applications such as streaming media, messaging, or voice calling that utilize service provider networks for delivery without being under the control of the network service provider. In many cases, the OTT services com- pete with services offered by the network operator themselves, such as when consumers use VoIP services like Skype or messaging services like WhatsApp instead of voice calling or short message service (SMS) offered by mobile wireless carriers.
In most countries, network operators are under statutory obligation to carry OTT traffic, and while they may receive revenue by charging for this carriage at the rate of regular data traffic, they forgo the higher revenues earned by charging for calls or messages directly. While this has been a boon for consumers, it is having negative impacts on the revenues, forecasts, and infrastructure investments of network service providers.
The issue of infrastructure investment is particularly sensitive in developing countries, where the need to create new infrastructure is substantial, it is difficult to attract investment, few alternative service providers exist if an incumbent leaves the market, and average revenue per user is already relatively low. Regulators in these markets face dif- ficult choices due to the desire to bring better and lower-cost services


Moderators
SB

Shiv Bashki

Ericsson

Speakers
MS

Martin Saint

Carnegie Mellon University


Saturday September 21, 2019 9:00am - 9:33am
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:00am

The Regulation of Archives and Society’s Memory
View full paper here

Research has noted a link between social media use and political participation. Scholars have also identified a need to explain this link. The present study is a theoretical and empirical probe into the political outcomes of unfriending people on social media. Drawing on privacy management theory and the social identity perspective, it explores the relationship between social network curation (blocking or unfriending others on social media for political reasons), perceived social network agreeability (how often people agree with the political opinions or political content of friends on social media), and forms of political participation. Using data from a survey of US adults (N=2,018) and a structural equation modelling approach, study results indicate a relational path from social network curation, through expressive participation (e.g. discussing politics and posting about politics on social media), to more demonstrative forms of participation (e.g. donating money and volunteering time). The study contributes to our understanding of the link between social media use and political outcomes by focusing on a unique explanatory mechanism. Policy implications pertain to the role that social media useplays in fostering political involvement. Specifically, if cutting disagreeable friends out of one’ssocial network is associated with political participation, this raises normative concerns regarding engagement which is underpinned by political polarization and intolerance.

Moderators
avatar for Randolph May

Randolph May

The Free State Foundation

Speakers
NT

Noam Tirosh

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
AS

Amit Schejter

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev


Saturday September 21, 2019 9:00am - 9:33am
Y402 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:00am

Connective Ambition and Creative Caution: Facebook Use among Unstably Housed Adults in Chicago
Click here for full paper

Because poverty is in part a factor of social networks that are local and homophilous, the ability to connect to the wider world through social network sites is a potential boon for residents of economically depressed communities. At the same time, low-income and particularly older adults are shown to have the lowest level of digital skills while at once being those who are most targeted by online scams and hacks. For those seeking connection as a means to survive life in poverty, then, digital inclusion through social network sites presents unique promise and risk.

Studies of younger and middle-class social media users argue that users negotiate opportunity and risk in reference to personal experience and levels of digital skill. How do economically marginalized adults approach such a balance based on their experience of poverty and limited digital skills? The aim of this study is to understand how unstably housed adults in the inner city approach social networking on Facebook. The method of study – ethnography and in-depth interviews – allows insights into how practices follow from attitudes, and attitudes from experience. The study explores in-depth the cases of low-income adults in Chicago who consider Facebook one tool for getting off the street and into self-sufficiency in income and housing, an digital-age optimism I refer to as “connective ambition.” To shield themselves from risk, users engage in atypical tactics to avoid unwanted exposure and root out scammers, tactics of “creative caution”. The study concludes that promoting privacy skills is a frontier for the digital inclusion for disadvantaged users on social network sites. Yet skills are not a silver bullet: disadvantaged users such as those experiencing homelessness face difficult choices in whether to present themselves as homeless online in order to appeal for help. The barriers to digital inclusion are thus not only instrumental – as in access and skills – but also social and perceptual – including the stigma that follows marginalized users as they venture into networked publics.

Moderators
DC

Derrick Cogburn

American University

Speakers
WM

Will Marler

Northwestern University


Saturday September 21, 2019 9:00am - 9:33am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

9:00am

Technology Adoption in Spectrum Sharing: Estimating the Impact on Incumbents in the 3.5GHz Band
View full paper here

In spectrum sharing, incumbents are concerned about interference to their oper- ations caused by spectrum entrants. Technical approaches, such as cognitive radios, spectrum databases, etc. have been developed in an attempt to minimize this inter- ference. Whether the interference is co-channel or adjacent-channel, the power level of the interfering signal depends on the number of entrant radios and their spatial relationship to the incumbent operations.
In this paper, we report on a modelling approach that is based on technology adoption literature and uses a tool that was developed for epidemiology to empirically estimate received signal power in a particular geographic location for a particular shar- ing framework (CBRS). Using this tool, we can estimate the received signal strength a particular points in space (US Naval base, in particular) under different technology adoption profiles, and allow these to change over time.

Moderators
Speakers
SP

Seongmin Park

University of Pittsburgh
PK

Prashant Krishnamurthy

University of Pittsburgh
MW

Martin Weiss

University of Pittsburgh
MG

Marcela Gomez

University of Pittsburgh


Saturday September 21, 2019 9:00am - 9:33am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:33am

Big Data, Machine Learning, Consumer Protection and Privacy
View full paper here

Abstract

Consumer protection and data privacy law and regulation face important challenges from big data and machine learning techniques, particularly where these are used for making decisions about services provided to consumers. 

Complying with requirements to notify the consumer as to the purpose of data collection is difficult where, as in machine learning, the purpose may not be known at time of notification. Consent is difficult to obtain when the complexity of big data and machine learning systems is beyond the consumer’s comprehension. The notion of data minimization (collecting and storing only data necessary for the purpose for which it was collected, storing it for the minimum period of time) runs counter to the modus operandi of the industry, which emphasizes maximizing the volumes of data collection over time. 

The successful functioning of machine learning models and the accuracy of their outputs depends on the quality of the input data. Data protection and privacy laws increasingly impose legal responsibility on firms to ensure the accuracy of the data they hold and process. However, they do not legislate for accuracy of output from big data and machine learning systems. This raises questions about the regulatory responsibilities of those handling big data, concerning both the accuracy of input data in automated decisions and the data reported in formal credit data reporting systems. In some jurisdictions, this has given rise, among other remedies, to certain rights to object to automated decisions.

Inferences from input data generated by machine learning models determine how individuals are viewed and evaluated for automated decisions. Data protection and privacy laws may be insufficient to deal with the outputs of machine learning models that process such data. One of their concerns is to prevent discrimination, typically protecting special categories of groups (e.g., race, ethnicity, religion, gender). In the era of big data, however, non-sensitive data can be used to infer sensitive data.

Machine learning may lead to discriminatory results where the algorithms’ training relies on historical examples that reflect past discrimination, or the model fails to consider a wide enough set of factors. Addressing bias is challenging, but tests have been developed to assess where it may arise. In some countries, where bias is unintentional, it may nevertheless be unlawful if it has “disparate impact,” which arises where the outcomes from a selection process are widely different for a protected class of persons.

The challenges arising for the treatment of big data and machine learning under legal and regulatory frameworks for data protection and privacy suggest that the development of robust self-regulatory and ethical regimes in the artificial intelligence and financial services community may be particularly important. Facing legal and regulatory uncertainty, businesses may introduce risk management systems, employ privacy by design and develop ethics. 

Further exploration and development is needed in relation to standards and procedures, including acceptable inferential analytics, reliability of inferences, ethical standards for artificial intelligence, provision of post-decision counterfactuals, documentation of written policies, privacy principles for design, explanations of automated decisions, access to human intervention, and other accountability mechanisms.

Moderators
AM

Aleecia McDonald

Carnegie Mellon University

Speakers
RM

Rory Macmillan

Macmillan Keck Attorneys & Solicitors


Saturday September 21, 2019 9:33am - 10:08am
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:33am

Internet Usage Subnational Disparity Measure in Mexico: A Gender-Digital Divide Approach
View full paper here

Along with the gradual expansion of the ICT, an important amount of research has documented the emergence of the digital divide. Even if the main takeaway is that not everybody can ripe the benefits that telecommunication technology currently offers it’s important to keep acknowledging that women in developing countries have to overcome much more barriers than their male counterpart to appropriate the ICT.
The studies on digital divide emphasizes two main tenets in the research agenda: ICT access and ICT usage. Our research seeks to analyze the gender digital divide in terms of ICT usage narrowing our focus on internet use in Mexico.
Even though the literature has consistently accumulated evidence of the gender- digital-divide existence in many societies, there is work that can be done to shed a bit more light to the subject. One of the ways to do this is keep seeking to generate ever so slightly more precise characterizations of the divide when sociodemographic and economics factors are taken into account.
Therefore, this article seeks to tackle the following entangled empirical questions: Is there geographical patterns in mexicans internet usage? In which social, demographic and economic factors hinges Mexico’s use of internet if any? Does differences exists between men and women in internet use frequency?
To do so we analyze the 32 Mexico’s states sociodemographic microdata from a quantitative exploratory approach through the use of entropy class indexes. In particular, following Lengsfeld (2011), we use the Theil Index, which is commonly used in the income inequality literature with great effect. Starting from the definition of mutually exclusive and completely exhaustive population groups, the Theil index allows to identify two sources of internet usage inequality in a population: the inequality that arises between groups and the inequality that arises within groups. At the same time, the index is able to measure the total internet usage inequality by the weighted aggregation of both of the sources of inequality. The estimation of the index uses both categorical and discrete data taken from the Mexican National Household Information Technology Availability and Usage Survey 2017 (INEGI, 2017). The variables that determine the mutually exclusive groups that are used for the index estimation are: age, education, economically active population, type of occupation and economically inactive population. In each and every one of this segmentation criteria we will analyze the gender disparities that may arise. Since our data source allows it, we do this procedure for the 32 states in the Mexican republic. When taken into account comprehensively, all this estimation enables us to present a detail diagnosis of the digital-gender-divide in Mexico.

Moderators
SB

Shiv Bashki

Ericsson

Speakers

Saturday September 21, 2019 9:33am - 10:08am
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:33am

Net Neutrality and Its' Repeal: Small Firms' Shareholders Shrug While Large Firms' Shareholders Turn
View full paper here
The FCCs decision to repeal Net Neutrality governance of Internet traffic has not ended the debate over whether such protections are needed. This paper investigates the effects of changes in Net Neu- trality regulation through an event study that unlike previous studies, employs as a baseline model, the Fama/French Three-Factor model to capture differences in firm size. The results are striking: for the most part, investors in both small and large firms are indifferent to changes in Net Neutrality rules. However, the selection of Chairman Pai is a significant negative event for the group of largest firms. One explanation consistent with this finding is that the appointment of Pai gave a green light not only for Net Neutrality’s repeal but also signaled that the FCC would take a favorable stance towards merger activity. Large firms in a given industry are more likely to operate as acquirers and therefore, more likely to realize losses in shareholder value.

Moderators
avatar for Randolph May

Randolph May

The Free State Foundation

Speakers
DG

David Gabel

Queens College
JN

Joan Nix

Queens College
BM

Bruce McNevin

New York University


Saturday September 21, 2019 9:33am - 10:08am
Y402 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

9:33am

The Political Outcomes of Unfriending: Social Network Curation, Network Agreeability, and Political Participation
View full paper here

Research has noted a link between social media use and political participation. Scholars have also identified a need to explain this link. The present study is a theoretical and empirical probe into the political outcomes of unfriending people on social media. Drawing on privacy management theory and the social identity perspective, it explores the relationship between social network curation (blocking or unfriending others on social media for political reasons), perceived social network agreeability (how often people agree with the political opinions or political content of friends on social media), and forms of political participation. Using data from a survey of US adults (N=2,018) and a structural equation modelling approach, study results indicate a relational path from social network curation, through expressive participation (e.g. discussing politics and posting about politics on social media), to more demonstrative forms of participation (e.g. donating money and volunteering time). The study contributes to our understanding of the link between social media use and political outcomes by focusing on a unique explanatory mechanism. Policy implications pertain to the role that social media use plays in fostering political involvement. Specifically, if cutting disagreeable friends out of one’s social network is associated with political participation, this raises normative concerns regarding engagement which is underpinned by political polarization and intolerance.



Moderators
DC

Derrick Cogburn

American University

Speakers
CR

Craig Robertson

Michigan State University
LF

Laleah Fernandez

Michigan State University
avatar for Ruth Shillair, Ph.D.

Ruth Shillair, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Media & Information Studies, Michigan State University
Interests include: improving protections for individuals by improving cybersecurity, reducing digital divides, making cybersecurity/privacy usable.


Saturday September 21, 2019 9:33am - 10:08am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

9:33am

Design of Institutions for Spectrum: Lessons from Spectrum Trading in India
View full paper here

Recent high-profile merger and antitrust cases as well as policy debates worldwide have centered around the relationship between the access to (big) data and the market power of firms in digital markets. These discussions have brought forward numerous con- ceptual arguments for and against the conjecture that market power may be derived from a firm’s access to big data. This study attempts to shed light on these arguments and makes the following contributions: First, we survey the economic, information systems and marketing literature and provide an overview of the empirical evidence on the eco- nomic benefits that firms derive from big data in the internet economy. Specifically, we focus on data-driven personalization and targeting and derive nuanced insights on how big data can benefit firms, while also highlighting moderating factors that significantly in- fluence economic outcomes. Second, we identify six facilitating factors that enable a firm to establish a sustained competitive advantage based on the economic benefits achieved from big data. These factors include structural market characteristics as well as business strategies that firms may pursue to strengthen their competitiveness. Third, we con- tribute to the current policy debate on market concentration and on how to deal with dominant data-driven firms. Based on the identified facilitating factors, we propose a set of escalating policy measures to address competitive concerns and anti-competitive conduct in the data economy.

Moderators
Speakers
RJ

Rekha Jain

IIM Ahmedabad


Saturday September 21, 2019 9:33am - 10:08am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

10:08am

Data-Driven Market Power: An Overview of Economic Benefits and Competitive Advantages from Big Data Use
View full paper here

Recent high-profile merger and antitrust cases as well as policy debates worldwide have centered around the relationship between the access to (big) data and the market power of firms in digital markets. These discussions have brought forward numerous con- ceptual arguments for and against the conjecture that market power may be derived from a firm’s access to big data. This study attempts to shed light on these arguments and makes the following contributions: First, we survey the economic, information systems and marketing literature and provide an overview of the empirical evidence on the eco- nomic benefits that firms derive from big data in the internet economy. Specifically, we focus on data-driven personalization and targeting and derive nuanced insights on how big data can benefit firms, while also highlighting moderating factors that significantly in- fluence economic outcomes. Second, we identify six facilitating factors that enable a firm to establish a sustained competitive advantage based on the economic benefits achieved from big data. These factors include structural market characteristics as well as business strategies that firms may pursue to strengthen their competitiveness. Third, we con- tribute to the current policy debate on market concentration and on how to deal with dominant data-driven firms. Based on the identified facilitating factors, we propose a set of escalating policy measures to address competitive concerns and anti-competitive conduct in the data economy.

Moderators
AM

Aleecia McDonald

Carnegie Mellon University

Speakers
VF

Victoria Fast

University of Passau
DS

Daniel Schnurr

University of Passau
MW

Michael Wohlfarth

University of Passau


Saturday September 21, 2019 10:08am - 10:40am
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

10:08am

Developing a Digital Inclusion Index at the State Level: the case of Mexico
For full paper click here
Abstract
Despite consensus over the importance of measuring digital inclusion, there is a lack of agreement among researchers on how it should be measured. This paper builds extensively off of prior research on measuring digital inclusion by analyzing different definitions for digital inclusion and comparing common digital inclusion indices. We analyze the variables included in five indices intended to measure digital inclusion:

1) Australian Digital Inclusion Index,

2) CISCO Country Digital Readiness,

3) ITU Digital Access Index,

4) The Economist Inclusive Internet Index, and

5) the World Bank Digital Adoption Index.

Using a methodology called “qualitative meta-synthesis,” we select variables that appear in at least three of the five original indices for inclusion in a more parsimonious index, the Digital Inclusion and Policy Index (DIP Index). We construct and analyze four versions of the DIP Index to validate fitness—two versions contain parsimonious combinations of variables from the five original indices and two versions add a variable to measure the presence of state-level digital inclusion policy. Data collected from the National Statistics and Geography Institute of Mexico for all 32 States of Mexico from 2018 are used to recreate four of the five original indices and our four versions of the DIP Index. These indices are correlated with each other and with an independent measure of economic and social competitiveness, the State Competitive Index developed by the Mexican Institute for Competitiveness. Theory supports a positive relationship between digital inclusion strategies and increasing state-level competitiveness in regard to economic and social factors. The results suggest that a parsimonious index of as few as four variables is capable of measuring digital inclusion and that an index of as few as five variables, including a variable to measure the presence of state-level digital inclusion policy, is capable of measuring digital inclusion and impacts of state-level digital inclusion policy. The results create a parsimonious index for measuring digital inclusion, which can serve to alleviate costs for data gathering and elucidate the differing impacts of state-level policy strategies on digital inclusion.

Moderators
SB

Shiv Bashki

Ericsson

Speakers
avatar for Manuel Ochoa

Manuel Ochoa

Policy Analist & Researcher, University of California
Manuel has a Bachelor in Business Management from the Monterrey Institute of Higher Education (Tecnológico de Monterrey), and is certified in Political Science by the same institution. He is interested in creating a more open and democratic world through technology. He is a former... Read More →
BN

Brandie Nonnecke

University of California Berkeley


Saturday September 21, 2019 10:08am - 10:40am
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

10:08am

Zero-rating and sponsored data strategies of Internet service providers: A systematic review of the literature
View full paper here
Internet service providers have recently introduced “zero-rating” and “sponsored data” as new tariff components in mobile communications markets, which exempt the data traffic of certain content and services providers or even certain types (e.g., social networking, gaming, music and video streaming) from counting against the monthly data cap of consumers. Despite the growing literature on this topic, a conceptualization of both practices and a synthesis of the literature is missing. We provide a systematic review of the literature and propose a framework using the price structure, bandwidth per consumer, and the degree of discrimination, to map the different strategies with and configurations of zero-rating and sponsored data. Moreover, we systematically analyze the findings from the literature and derive strategy-specific insights. Finally, we scrutinize both practices in the context of net neutrality, make recommendations to regulators, and identify promising areas for future research. We find zero-rating and sponsored data to be non-neutral data accounting practices, which represent a problematic type of discrimination if Internet service providers combine them with a non-neutral data cap enforcement policy.

Speakers
avatar for Randolph May

Randolph May

The Free State Foundation
CH

Christian Hildebrandt

Goethe University Frankfurt
LW

Lukas Wiewiorra

Goethe University Frankfurt


Saturday September 21, 2019 10:08am - 10:40am
Y402 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

10:08am

Five Free Expression Safeguards from a Facebook User's Perspective
View paper here

Pressure is mounting on Facebook to moderate content more aggressively, risking
collateral damage to free expression. Activists have responded by demanding new policies to protect expression rights but, until now, there has been no empirical evidence about public opinion of these safeguards.
Using an original survey of a non-representative sample of US adults who post regularly on Facebook (n=496), I explore concerns about moderation and reactions to five proposed safeguards: increased transparency reporting of moderation decisions, the right to an explanation of those decisions, the right to appeal them, an independent oversight board, and a government audit. (Some are already partially implemented.)
The findings are statistically significant (p < 0.05) and have implications for
evidence-based policymaking. The right to appeal a moderation decision would ease
concerns about overmoderation about as effectively as the moderation oversight board
which Facebook is already building. I recommend that Facebook prioritize implementing
the right to appeal, but also note that most respondents want more power ceded to the
board. A US government audit of Facebook’s moderation would intensify concerns, so I
recommend that potential government intervention be limited to mandated transparency.
Challenging a dominant narrative, I find respondents are more concerned about overmoderation than undermoderation, and add this to the list of reasons that content moderation AI should not be tuned aggressively.
Further, I compare the data against the power expression protection theory (Andsager, et al. 2004. Free expression and five democratic publics.), which claims people of more powerful demographics tend to value freedom of expression more. Finding no support in this context, I conclude it would be a mistake to stereotype those concerned about overmoderation as limited to privileged groups.

Moderators
DC

Derrick Cogburn

American University

Speakers
avatar for Zak Rogoff

Zak Rogoff

#KeepItOn Fellow, Georgetown University
I'm a global campaigner focused on human rights and the internet. I want to talk to you about internet shutdowns, platform regulations, technology & immigration, and of course, advocacy strategy! My background is in political communication and robotics engineering y estoy aprendiendo... Read More →


Saturday September 21, 2019 10:08am - 10:40am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

10:08am

Assessing the Sharing Potential in the 3.5 GHz Band: An Analytical Approach
View full paper here


Absract

The three-tiered spectrum sharing proposal for the 3.5 GHz band appears as one of the most structured sharing guidelines developed by the FCC. This tiered-sharing proposal makes the 3.5 GHz band a flexible sharing framework; however, flexibility comes at the cost of increased complexity of the underlying physical network model, which inhibits the direct assessment of the quality levels available to incumbents or prospective service providers. Here we propose a stochastic framework that considers operation of multiple service providers that deploy radio infrastructure that will operate in the 3.5 GHz band. Using this framework, we can evaluate network performance, here represented as potential throughput, for a range of spectrum sharing scenarios involving the operation of a spectrum access service. Effectively, we can explore the conditions for optimal and fair allocation of spectrum channels between the priority access and generalized access tiers, and identify scenarios under which interested providers seek a priority access license, instead of opting for generalized access. The results produced by our framework are intended to help policy makers and prospective service providers make informed decisions, grounded in physical reality, on resource access and applicable regulation.

Moderators
Speakers
JK

Jacek Kiblida

Trinity College, The University of Dublin
LD

Luiz DaSilva

Trinity College, The University of Dublin
MW

Martin Weiss

University of Pittsburgh
MG

Marcela Gomez

University of Pittsburgh


Saturday September 21, 2019 10:08am - 10:40am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

10:40am

Coffee Break
Saturday September 21, 2019 10:40am - 11:10am
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:10am

A Collaborative Enforcement Mechanism for Spectrum Sharing Using Blockchain and Smart Contracts: An application for the 1695-1710MHz band
For full paper click here

Traditionally, spectrum allocation has been gov- erned by centralized schemes (e.g., command-and-control). Nonetheless, other mechanisms, such as collaborative enforce- ment, have proven to be successful in a variety of scenarios. In Collaborative enforcement (i.e., collective action), the stake- holders agree on decision-making arrangements (i.e., access, allocation, and control of the resources) while being involved in monitoring the adherence to the rules as a shared effort. Blockchain is a distributed ledger of records/transactions (i.e., database) that brings many benefits such as decentralization, transparency, immutability, etc. One of the most notable charac- teristics of blockchain-based platforms is their definition as trust- less environments, as there is no central entity in charge of con- trolling the network interactions. Instead, trust is a group effort, achieved through repeated interactions, consensus algorithms, and cryptographic tools; therefore, converting blockchain systems into prominent examples of collaborative governance regimes. In this paper, our goal is to analyze a particular application of blockchain and smart contracts for the 1695-1710MHz sharing scenario. In this way, we provide a theoretical analysis of the feasibility and the required characteristics to implement such a system. In addition, through the implementation of a Proof of Concept, we evaluate how the implementation of a blockchain- based organization can be the motor to build a collaborative governance scheme in the spectrum sharing arrangement of the 1695-1710MHz band

Moderators
JL

John Leibovitz

Columbia Capital

Speakers
SR

Stephanie Rose

University of Pittsburgh
MW

Martin Weiss

University of Pittsburgh
TZ

Taieb Zneti

University of Pittsburgh
MG

Marcela Gomez

University of Pittsburgh
DD

Debarun Das

University of Pittsburgh
PB

Pedro Bustamante

University of Pittsburgh


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:10am - 11:43am
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:10am

Toward a Theory of Harms in the Internet Ecosystem
Click for full paper

One foundational justification for regulatory intervention is that there are harms occurring of a character that create a public interest in mitigating them. This paper is concerned with such harms that arise in the Internet ecosystem. Looking at news headlines for the last few years, it may seem that the range of such harms is unbounded. Hoping to add some order to the chaos, we undertake an effort to classify harms in the Internet ecosystem, in pursuit of a more or less complete taxonomy of harms. Our goal in structuring this taxonomy can help to mitigate harms in a more systematic way, as opposed to fighting an endless defensive battle against whatever happens next.

The background we bring to this paper is on the one hand architectural—how the Internet ecosystem is actually structured—and on the other hand empirical—how we should measure the Internet to best understand what is happening. If everything were wonderful about the Internet today, the need to measure and understand would not be so compelling. A justification for measurement follows from its ability to shed light on problems and challenges. Sustained measurement or compelled reporting of data, and the analysis of the collected data, generally comes at considerable effort and cost, so must be justified by an argument that it will shed light on something important. This reasoning naturally motivates our taxonomy of things that are wrong—what we call harms. That is where we, the research community generally, and governments should focus attention. We do not intend this paper as a catalog of pessimism, but to help define an action agenda for the research community and for governments. The structure of the paper proceeds "up the layers'', from technology to society. For harms that are closer to the technology, we can be more specific about the harms, and more specific about possible measurements and remedies, and actors that could undertake them.

One motivation for this paper is that we believe the Internet ecosystem is at an inflection point. The Internet has revolutionized our ability to store, move, and process information, including information about people, and we are only at the beginning of understanding its impact on society and how to manage and mitigate harms resulting from unregulated commercial use of these capabilities. Current events suggest that now is a point of transition from laissez-faire to regulation. However, the path to good regulation is not obvious, and now is the time for the research community to think hard about what advice to give the governments of the world, and what sort of data can back up that advice. Our highest-level goal for this paper is to contribute to a conversation along those lines.

Moderators
Speakers
DC

David Clark

Massachussetts Institute of Technology
KC

kc Claffy

University of California San Diego


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:10am - 11:43am
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:10am

Disparities in Purposeful Internet Use in U.S. States: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Socioeconomic Influences
View full paper here

As attention in digital divide research shifts from internet access to its use, and subsequently its impacts, this paper examines purposeful uses of the internet for the US states in 2017 using data from the Digital Nation Data Explorer of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). The conceptual model posits relationships of a group of demographic, societal, economic, and social capital variables to purposeful internet use (PIU) dependent variables that reference spatial clustering. The research questions are examine spatial patterns of PIU in US states and associations of demographic, socio-economic, affordability, innovation, social capital and societal openness factors with PIU dependent variables. Methods employed include k-means cluster analysis, mapping, and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analysis. Findings reveal unique cluster-based spatial patterns of high and low PIU in regions of the nation. The regression associations indicate that leading factors influencing PIU are professional, managerial, science and arts occupation, age (an inverse effect), social capital (positive effect), selected racial/ethnicity factors, and societal openness, with differences between PIU indicators for e-communication, e-entertainment, e-education, e-commerce, e-health, and purposeful internet use for internet-of-things and location-based services. Policy implications of the findings are discussed. The study is novel due to its emphasis on purposeful uses representing a second-level digital divide, the spatial insights, and new empirical findings.

Moderators
JP

Jeff Prince

Indiana University

Speakers
AS

Avijit Sakar

University of Redlands
JP

James Pick

University of Redlands


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:10am - 11:43am
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:10am

Online dis-trust? Relationships between cybersecurity and online transactions
View full paper here

This paper explores different relationships among various cybersecurity aspects and online transactions. Particularly, we focus on three online security aspects: (1) perception of network security, (2) being victim of a cyberattack, and (3) engaging in risky online activities. Using a Structural Equations Model (SEM) and the After Access 2017-2018 dataset (for six Latin American countries), we characterize the relationships between each of these three aspects, along with the importance of other structural variables. The main results are: (1) user’s perception of security plays a key role in e- commerce activities adoption - individuals who report feeling insecure in the Internet tend to engage in significantly fewer online transactions; (2) there is a strong positive relationship between e-commerce use and the likelihood of being a cyberattack victim - this group of e-commerce users would be more vulnerable; (3) individuals with lower educational and socioeconomic levels, and females, are in greater disadvantage in the adoption of e-commerce activities.
Keywords: cybersecurity, e-commerce, ICT

Moderators
BK

BC Kim

University of Alabama

Speakers
RB

Roxana Barrantes Cáceres

Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
AA

Aileen Agüero García

Instituto de Estudios Peruanos
PM

Paulo Matos Trifu

Innovations for Poverty Action
DA

Diego Aguilar

Instituto de Estudios Peruanos


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:10am - 11:43am
Y402 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:10am

Ontology of Digital Asset After Death: Policy Complexities, Suggestions, and Critique of Digital Platforms
View full paper here

The digitization of our life has brought complexities associated with addressing digital life afterone’s death. This study investigates two related issues of (1) privacy and (2) property of post-life digital assets. The understanding of digital assets has not been fully unpacked largely due to the current policy complexities in accessing and obtaining digital assets at death. These derive from restrictive corporate terms and ambiguous conditions drafted by digital service providers. This study calls critical attention to the importance of respecting users’ rights in digital environments that currently favor service providers’ interests. We argue that there are ethical blind spots in protecting users’ rights, given no ontological difference between people’s digital beings and physical existence. Fundamentally, we are concerned about the transition into the big data era in which collection, use, and dissemination of digital activities became integral part of our ontology even after a point of death.


Speakers
YJ

Yong Jin Park

Howard University
YS

Yoonmo Sang

University of Canberra
HL

Hoon Lee

Kyunghee University
SM

S Mo Jang-Jones

University of South Carolina


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:10am - 11:43am
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

11:43am

Open-Source or Open-Slather? Governing Blockchain Applications as Common-Pool Resources
View full paper here

In the paper, we extend the constitutional catallaxy view of governance on distributed knowledge system (DKS) by including human decision-making concerning ownership and governance of distributed ledger systems (DLS). This allows us to distinguish between institutions that are separate and distinct from ownership and control of the digital elements of the system. We propose that DLS are a speciOic form of common-pool resource or club good, depending upon whether the DLS is (respectively) permissionless (i.e. anyone or any entity can participate at any level of the institution) or permissioned (i.e. speciOic criteria must be met to participate in particular areas of institutional decision-making).
Using a polycentric analytic approach and positivist case studies, we conclude that despite promises of decentralised governance of DLS, effective control will be held by a small number of powerful centralised stakeholders determining system software content. Typical DLS end-users exert no greater governance control than customers exercise over the Oirms they do business with, or the beneOiciaries of charities exercise over the trustees. However, permissioned systems with associated formalised governance arrangements typically confer greater decision-making power on node operators than permissionless systems, where higher costs of successful forking increase the larger is the number of nodes, making changes to software-encoded governance rules less likely to occur, even when this may be in end-users’ interests.

Moderators
JL

John Leibovitz

Columbia Capital

Speakers
BE

Bronwyn E. Howell

Victoria University of Wellington
PH

Petrus H. Potgieter

University of South Africa
BS

Bert Sadowski

Eindhoven University of Technology


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:43am - 12:15pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:43am

Does Accessible Design Benefit General Users of E-Government? Examining the Relationship between Website Usability and Accessibility
View paper here

Although the rapid development of e-government has greatly facilitated the access to critical information and public services, it also creates a significant challenge for government to accommodate the needs of people with disabilities that often impede their access to information and services online (Sachdeva et al. 2015; Duplaga, 2017). In the United States, Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act requires that federal government agencies provide online services accessible to people with disabilities, and strongly recommends such initiatives for government at all levels (Youngblood, 2014). However, many studies which examine the accessibility of government websites suggest that severe accessibility issues still plague the e-government portals of governments at various levels (Potter, 2002; West, 2008; Youngblood & Mackiewicz, 2012).
Several studies have explored why the government is slow in implementing the accessible design for e-government portals (Berry, 1994; Velleman, Nahuis & van der Geest, 2017). However, a critical issue is often overlooked: only 30% to 57% of the population with disabilities are in fact Internet users (Rubaii-Barrett &Wise, 2008; Pew Research Center, 2017).
Given that 12.7% of Americans have some form of disability (Centers of Decease Control, 2015), it can be estimated that Internet users with disabilities constitute only 6% - 11% of the online population. Since many disabled individuals are not even Internet users, it is questionable whether the government would have enough motivation to invest in accessible design of the online portals. Therefore, although improving the design of e-government portals for the benefit of people with disabilities should remain an ultimate goal to achieve, it would be necessary to provide the government with more incentives to invest in website accessibility.
By analyzing the relationship between the accessibility of websites and the evaluation given by users without disabilities, this study seeks to investigate whether e-government portals with higher accessibility also improve the online experience for general users without disabilities. The finding of the study offers a different perspective from which to view the issue of website accessibility and provides a potential incentive for government to invest more in the accessible design of e-government portals.
The paper is structured as follows. In the next section, existing studies about web accessibility, usability and the relationship between the two concepts are reviewed. The third section introduces the data and the analytical method employed in the study, followed by the results of the empirical analysis. The main findings and conclusion are summarized in the last section with the discussion of the implications of the study.

Moderators
Speakers
BM

Bumgi Min

The Pennsylvania Stae University
YB

Yang Bai

The Pennsylvania State University
JG

Jenna Grzeslo

State University of New York New Platz
KJ

Krishna Jayakar

The Pennsylvania State University
YW

Yang Wang

The State University of Pennsylvania


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:43am - 12:15pm
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:43am

The Balance of Market Power and Efficiency in the U.S. Mobile Services Industry: A Panel Data Analysis
Click here for full paper

This paper estimates a two-part model that separately captures the effects of market-wide concentration and firm-specific strategies that impact that concentration. A binary choice model that relates concentration in a cross section of geographically granular U.S. mobile wireless markets and subscribership confirms an inverted-U relationship. This relationship is robust to endogeneity of average prices and the market HHIs. Using the same dataset, a multinomial logit model finds strong evidence that investment in spectrum and 4G infrastructure contributes to a carrier’s market share relative to its rivals in the same markets. Furthermore, indexes of service quality are found to be directly related to carriers’ investments.

Moderators
JP

Jeff Prince

Indiana University

Speakers
GW

Glenn Woroch

University of California Berkeley


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:43am - 12:15pm
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:43am

Not a Zero Sum Game: How to Simultaneously Maximize Efficiency and Privacy in Data-driven Urban Governance
For full paper click here

In this paper, we validate the hypothesis that in the context of Indian municipal governance, the trade-off between government efficiency and privacy is not a zero-sum game; rather one can improve these seemingly contrasting forces simultaneously. India is on dual trajectories. On one hand, there is a nationwide push to improve municipal governance through increased transparency and efficiency, especially in the functions that involve citizen interaction. On the other hand, as a country, India must embrace the Supreme Court Bench decision of August, 2017, that privacy is a constitutional right.[9] There are two primary aspects to reaching our conclusion. The first is the addition of a new category of data of significant volume; we have been provided access to 383,959 real citizen transactions across all services for the 112 urban local bodies (ULBs) for one state for all of 2018. The logs include the details of each ULB functionary involved in each stage of responding to a citizen request. This has enabled us to consider our previously defined metrics, the Governance Efficiency Index and Information Privacy Index, at multiple levels of granularity. The second aspect is the government-defined service level agreements that define acceptable completion times. This allows us to evaluate completion times. The further analysis provided in this paper demonstrates that that ULBs from all three size tiers can and do reach our Model ULB designation of performance. We conclude from this analysis that ULBs of all sizes and across all services have the capacity to maximize both efficiency and privacy.

Moderators
BK

BC Kim

University of Alabama

Speakers
CV

Chintan Vaishnav

Massachussetts Institute of Technology
KS

Karen Sollins

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
NK

Nikita Kodali

Massachusett Institute of Technology


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:43am - 12:15pm
Y402 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

11:43am

Are Deep Fakes a Shallow Concern? A Critical Analysis of the Likely Societal Reaction to Deep Fakes
View full paper here

Abstract
Deep fakes, a class of AI generated audio-visual materials designed to appear as an authentic record of actual speech, garnered increasing attention as worries of foreign disinformation campaigns and so called “fake news” have increased. Some critics raise concerns that this new technology will be too realistic to differentiate fact from fiction, allowing bad actors to manipulate elections, induce societal unrest, and incite panic. In this view, the influx of deep fake content may lead to the death of trust in media outright, as people will assume all content may be artificially-generated “fake news.”
Yet close consideration ofthe hypotheses put forth so far reveals an unstated assumption that has not yet received attention: that deep fakes, once they are technologically advanced and easy to produce, will either be believed without question or will fundamentally shift public perceptions of video such that even real ones will be dismissed. This paper aims to fill the gap in the literature by critiquing the assumption that deep fakes, in the end, will necessarily fool the public into believing lies or rejecting truth.
In fact, the likely societal reaction outcome may lie somewhere in the middle, in which society develops proxy mechanisms for assessing the reliability of video evidence in the wake of deep fake technology. That likelihood is based on two classes of observations. First, the reason we trust images and video may stem largely from societal norms about the use of the medium, rather something inherent to the medium itself. Second, history has shown that similar concerns about digital photo editing techniques did not lead to either of the outcomes predicted for societal perceptions of truth; how society reacted to fake photos sheds much light on what is likely to happen with regard to deep fake videos.
Identifying the likely and less-drastic social trends in reaction to deep fakes is exceptionally important today, because ongoing fears of the technology have prompted calls for regulatory responses. For example, many propose amending Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act (“CDA 230”) to increase liability on platforms who do not take reasonable steps to limit the spread of deep fake content on their platforms. To the extent that there is a likely scenario in which ordinary operations of society are likely to manage the impact of deep fakes on perceptions of truth, the need for policy responses (that no doubt will be imperfect and potentially detrimental to valuable technological advances) is strongly lessened.
This paper proceeds by covering two main areas: emerging technologies and online platform regulation. It first explains the likely reaction to deep fakes by reviewing the development of similar technologies as well as the key distinctions from technologies of the past. Second, the paper examines whether regulatory responses to deep fakes, focusing primarily on calls to amend CDA 230, are necessary or whether existing regulatory tools and free market forces will be sufficient.

Speakers
JW

Jeffrey Westling

R Street Institute


Saturday September 21, 2019 11:43am - 12:15pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

12:15pm

Is Blockchain the Next Step in the Evolution Chain of [Market] Intermediaries?
View full paper here

The blockchain is a decentralized solution for handling transactions where we are concerned (among other aspects) with the accuracy and verification of transactions. One of its main promises is to eliminate the need for centralized entities or intermediaries and legal enforcement. Rather than trusting self-interested human intermediaries, the blockchain provides an alternative that relies on transparent computational protocols (Werbach 2018).
In this paper, we delve into this broker-less claim and analyze whether the blockchain needs an intermediary to allow for widespread access to its functionality and whether the blockchain itself is an intermediary. The latter would turn the blockchain into a new type of middleperson that constitutes a shift in trust from humans or traditional agents to computer code. In other words, the next step in the evolution chain of intermediaries from humans to machines.
The overall goal of this paper is to get the discussion started on the relationship between the blockchain and intermediaries so that we can think of plausible policy, governance, and regulatory measures to address the shortcomings and increase the opportunities for the widespread adoption of the blockchain technology in its different areas of impact. We begin by providing an overview of the workings of the blockchain before shifting our focus to an economic analysis of blockchain, where we argue that the economics literature has yet to explicitly consider blockchain as a transformative intermediary. We then explore situations in which the

Moderators
JL

John Leibovitz

Columbia Capital

Speakers
MW

Martin Weiss

University of Pittsburgh
MG

Marcela Gomez

University of Pittsburgh
PB

Pedro Bustamante

University of Pittsburgh
PK

Prashant Krishnamurthy

University of Pittsburgh
MM

Michael Madison

University of Pittsburgh
TM

Tymofly Mylovanov

University of Pittsburgh


Saturday September 21, 2019 12:15pm - 12:50pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

12:15pm

Characteristics of At-Scale mHealth Projects in the Global South: A Case Study Approach
For full paper click here

Mobile health (mHealth) has emerged as a popular practice due to the increasing penetration of mobile phones in low-resource environments. However, most of the data come from pilot studies, where the findings are drawn mostly from a single media use interface and short-term based, leaving us with a limited understanding about the long-term use and impact of these services. As the more programs and countries aim to establish scaled, sustainable mhealth programs, it is therefore important to study mHealth programs in more depth to understand what makes them successful. The goal of this study is to evaluate five mHealth projects at different levels of scale in five different countries to understand in what ways the scaled projects are similar or different than those that did not scale.

Moderators
Speakers
CY

Christopher Yoo

University of Pennsylvania
MH

Muge Haseki

University of Pennsylvania
SS

Sharada Srinivasan

University of Pennsylvania


Saturday September 21, 2019 12:15pm - 12:50pm
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

12:15pm

The Nuanced Effects of Internet Use on International Trade: An Empirical Analysis of U.S. Trade Data
For full paper click here

Although the trade-boosting effect of the Internet is well-documented, two critical
questions remain unsatisfactorily answered. First, does the Internet benefit the trade in services greater than the trade in goods? Second, does the Internet eliminate or at least, weaken the negative effect of physical distance? Using the bilateral export data between the U.S. and 52 countries over the 2006- 2016 period, this study answers the two pressing questions by examining and comparing the effects of the Internet in trade in goods and services. According to the result of the two-step system GMM estimation results, the increase in the adoption of the Internet in the U.S. would boost its exports. Particularly, the trade-boosting effect of the Internet on the export of ICT-enabled services is four times larger than that on the export of goods and non-ICT services. However, only a limited counter-conquering effect of the Internet is found. An increase in Internet adoption in the U.S. could further weaken the already-small distance effect in the trade in services only if the partner county is moderately far, i.e., in the middle tercile of distance from the U.S.
2
In spite of frequent fluctuations, international trade, in general, has been growing rapidly over the last two decades (see, for example, the World Bank Open Data). One of the critical factors contributing to the expansion of global trade is the rise of new communication technologies, pioneered by the Internet (Borcuch, Piłat-Borcuch & Świerczyńska-Kaczor, 2012). Although the trade-promoting effect of the Internet has been well documented in international trade literature (Freund & Weinhold, 2002, 2004; Lin, 2015; Lechman & Marszk, 2015), some critical questions are yet to be answered.
Traditionally, international trade studies tend to focus more on the trade in goods either because not enough data are available for the trade in services or services remained a small part in international trade (Gervais, 2013). Recently, more attention has been given to the trade in services due to its rapidly increasing share of global trade (Loungani, Mishara, Papageorgiou & Wang, 2017). Unlike the trade in goods where transportation costs, although in decline, are still nonnegligible (Hummels, 2007), the trade in services could benefit immensely from the wide use of the Internet as it could significantly lower the cost of cross-border communication, a major barrier to service trade in which interpersonal interaction plays an important part (Huang, 2007; Christen & Francois, 2010). Moreover, many services that used to be considered as non-tradable, such as business consulting and education, can now be easily delivered via the Internet (Nath & Liu, 2017). Therefore, it is often assumed that the trade-boosting effect of the Internet would be greater in the trade in services than in the trade in goods (Freund & Weinhold, 2004; Gnangnon & Iyer, 2018). However, to the best knowledge of the author, there is no empirical research which rigorously compares the nuanced effects of the Internet in different types of trade. Utilizing the bilateral trade data between the U.S. and 52 partner
3
countries over the 2006 -2016 period, this study seeks to fill this gap by comparing the effects of the Internet in trade in goods and services.
In the Condition of Postmodernity, Harvey (1990) proposed a widely accepted concept: with the help of advanced communication technologies, information can now travel across a great distance in much less or even in no time. Therefore, the distance has been “compressed” (p. 5) by speed. Has the distance-compression effect of the Internet been realized in international trade? The existing literature seems to suggest it is not the case. Even after the Internet has been widely used, geographic distance remains a critical barrier to trade as shown in many studies (Disdier & Head, 2008; Lin, 2015). However, even if the distance still is an obstacle to trade, is it possible that the Internet hasweakened the effect of geographic distance? Building on the analysis by Freund and Weinhold (2002) which uses trade data before the advent of the fast-speed Internet, this study also provides an updated answer to this important question.
The structure of the paper is as follows. In the next section, prior studies on the effect of the Internet on international trade and on the relationship between the Internet and the distance effect in international trade are reviewed. Then, the third section introduces the data and analytical strategies used in the study, followed by the results of the analyses. The last section provides a summary of the main findings. The implications and limitation of the study is also discussed in the section.

Moderators
JP

Jeff Prince

Indiana University

Speakers
YB

Yang Bai

The Pennsylvania State University


Saturday September 21, 2019 12:15pm - 12:50pm
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

12:15pm

Apps, Code, Culture, and Market Reform: Examining Influences on Android Permissions in the United States, South Korea, and Germany
View full paper here

Abstract
Access control via permissions is an important aspect of operating systems help app developers and users handle privacy and security aspects. As such, linking changes in app permission requests with the external landscape of privacy and data protection regulations could be a potential technique for studying the impact of these policies. To this end, we collected the top free Android apps in three categories (Social, Lifestyle, and Ages 5 and Under) across three countries (US, Germany, and South Korea) before and after the European Union (EU) General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) went into effect. Our analyses comparing pre-GDPR and post-GDPR app permission requests showed that permissions that impact privacy and security did not increase after the GDPR went into effect despite an increase in requests for other permissions. We further found no notable post-GDPR differences in permission requests across the three targeted countries despite jurisdictional differences in privacy regulations. The findings indicated that strict and comprehensive regulations in a major global market, such as the EU GDPR, is thus likely to harden the privacy and security of apps even for those that are outside its jurisdiction. Our findings further show that a longitudinal analysis of permission requests could be a useful tool for gauging the influence of privacy and data protection regulations.

Moderators
BK

BC Kim

University of Alabama

Speakers
JS

Jonatha Schubauer

Indiana University Bloomington
DA

David Argast

Indiana University Bloomington
JC

Jean Camp

Indiana University Bloomington
SP

Sameer Patil

Indiana University Bloomington


Saturday September 21, 2019 12:15pm - 12:50pm
Y402 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

12:15pm

Touched by the Trolls
View full paper here

From mid-2015 through the end of 2017, the Russian-government affiliated Internet Research Agency produced nearly 2.1 million English-language tweets from accounts that purported to be operated by U.S. nationals or organiza- tions (”trolls”). About half of the output of the troll accounts were retweets of other accounts, overwhelmingly from outside the network. We analyze the characteristics of outside accounts that were targeted by the trolls, and how those changed over the life of the operation, in order to infer what role contacts with outsiders might have played in the trolls’ propaganda strategy. We in- troduce the the three stage life-cycle for a troll account: introduction, growth, and amplification, and document the characteristics of those stages. Finally we analyze a quasi-experiment of the amplification stage and estimate that in the month leading up to the 2016 U.S. Presidential election, the trolls may have have accounted for about 3 million additional tweets from and 4 million additional followers for the 25,000 unique accounts they amplified.

Speakers
PW

Patrick Warren

Clemson University
DL

Darren Linvill

Clemson University


Saturday September 21, 2019 12:15pm - 12:50pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

12:50pm

Lunch, Student Paper Awards, Benton Early Career Award, Poster Award
Saturday September 21, 2019 12:50pm - 2:00pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

2:00pm

Impacts of Digitisation and AI on the Future of Work: Contrasting European and American Views
The panel will focus on:
the degree to which transformative technologies and related business models including AI, machine learning, big data, the Internet of Things and the emerging collaborative economy are likely to change the volume of work, the character of work, and compensation for work; and
the implications of the changing character of work, and the shift away from traditional full time employment, are likely to have on social protection systems in the US and the EU, together with potential public policy responses.
This transformation poses significant challenges for policymakers who seek to ensure that their national populations are reasonably well protected against catastrophic events as well as expensive but predictable events.

Moderators
Speakers
RD

Robert D. Atkinson

Information Technology and Innovation Foundation
DW

Darrell West

Brookings


Saturday September 21, 2019 2:00pm - 3:30pm
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

2:00pm

To 5G or Not to 5G? That is the Question: Mobile Broadband Network Developments in Europe, China, India and Mexico
This panel will focus on the impact of the widespread deployment, penetration and use of intelligent mobile devices, particularly smartphones, married to broadband mobile networks, in Europe, China, Mexico and India.
 
The intelligent mobile phone has become the most widely used communications device globally and the access device of choice in the developing world. In countries like India it is often the only available device for accessing the Internet and its large variety of associated services.
 
The panel will discuss issues such as:
• What role does mobile broadband play in different national broadband strategies?
• How will the transition from 4G/LTE networks to 5G networks be managed in different countries and regions, such as Europe, China, India and Mexico?
• How has China positioned itself to take a global leadership role in 5G, including standards development, commercial deployment and the development of a 5G ecosystem?
• What strategies have Mexico and India adopted in facilitating the national deployment of broadband mobile communications infrastructure and/or wholesale networks? Do Public Private Partnerships have a role to play in such deployments?
• What role can mobile broadband play in the delivery and use of a wide variety of digital information and transactional services, including electronic payments? How may mobile broadband services compensate for deficiencies in the physical infrastructure for banking services, rural healthcare and public information?

Moderators
PN

Prabir Neogi

Carleton University

Speakers
KJ

Krishna Jayakar

The Pennsylvania State University
RJ

Rekha Jain

IIM Ahmedabad
JW

Jason Whalley

Northumbria University
JM

Judith Mariscal Aviles

Centro de Investigación y Docencia Economica


Saturday September 21, 2019 2:00pm - 3:30pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

2:00pm

World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-19): Implications for the US Spectrum Policy
  • In a time where the literature usually focuses on US national spectrum policy while overlooking the implications of decisions at the international level, this panel addresses the potential implications of the forthcoming WRC-19 to be held in November 2019 with a focus on specific agenda items of critical importance. This includes WRC-19 Agenda Items (AI) 1.13, which will decide on the potential spectrum bands for 5G, AI 1.16 to consider issues related to Radio Local Area Networks (RLAN) in the 5 GHz, and future agenda items for WRC-23 (e.g. Mobile allocation in the UHF).
  • The panel tends also to examine whether the ITU-R has become less relevant for the US considering that the latter is planning 5G in the 28 GHz (among others), which is not one of the potential 5G bands in WRC-19. Another issue to be addressed is the criticismof the US to the ITU (the US is the largest contributor to the organization) and whether the US has become less powerful within WRCs.

Moderators
ME

Mohamed El-Moghazi

NTRA of Egypt

Speakers
avatar for rob frieden

rob frieden

Professor, Bellisario College


Saturday September 21, 2019 2:00pm - 3:30pm
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

3:30pm

Coffee Break
Saturday September 21, 2019 3:30pm - 4:00pm
Claudio Grossman Hall WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:00pm

Can Piracy Increase Innovation? The Software Industry’s Response to Online File Sharing
Click here for full paper
Abstract
We analyze the impact of digital piracy on innovation in the software industry by focusing on a natural experiment stemming from the development and release of advanced file-sharing tools in the early 2000's. Using difference-in-differences estimators comparing consumer-focused and enterprise-focused software firms, we find that the introduction of disruptive file-sharing technology led to an increase in subsequent R&D spending, copyrights, trademarks, and patents for large, incumbent software firms. We also evaluate the rate of new product introductions using survival analysis methods and find that software firms decreased their rate of new product releases following the rise in digital piracy. Our findings suggest that weakened intellectual property protection resulting from piracy can sometimes increase the rate of corporate innovation: firms seek to introduce new products that are superior to those available through piracy, but this innovation may reach the public at a slower pace.

Moderators
avatar for rob frieden

rob frieden

Professor, Bellisario College

Speakers
avatar for Wendy Bradley

Wendy Bradley

Southern Methodist University
I am an Assistant Professor of Strategy, Entrepreneurship, and Business Economics in the Cox School of Business at Southern Methodist University (SMU) in Dallas, Texas​. My research is in technological innovation, strategic management, and entrepreneurship.
JK

Julian Kolev

Southern Methodist University


Saturday September 21, 2019 4:00pm - 4:33pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:00pm

Zero-Rating and Other Initiatives by Over-The-Top Players in Africa: Do They Contribute to Universal Access and Service?
View full paper here

Although the mobile telecommunications market in Africa has witnessed unprecedented growth since liberalisation, coverage gaps persist. The effort of governments across Africa to address uneven mobile coverage has given rise to universal access and service (UAS) of mobile telecommunications but due to numerous challenges, coverage gaps persist. An emerging trend within this context is zero-rating and other initiatives by over-the-top (OTT) players, which this paper examines from a UAS perspective using a multi-case study with an analytical framework developed from five principles of UAS.
The paper finds that some zero-rated services and other OTTs initiatives contribute to UAS, albeit with some drawbacks and limited contribution to physical infrastructure. While this has prompted various concerns, including the need to regulate OTTs, this paper recommends that an eclectic dialogue and debate - a wider discussion that critically draws on the inputs of a diverse group of multi-stakeholders in the industry - is critical to achieving a pragmatic regulatory framework as coverage gaps, especially for the Internet in Africa, need wide-ranging innovative solutions and resources including those of OTTs.

Moderators
HH

Heather Hudson

University of Alaska Anchorage

Speakers
avatar for Emmanuel Arakpogun

Emmanuel Arakpogun

Lecturer in Digital and International Business, Northumbria University
Interested in private and public initiatives in closing the digital divides in Africa and other emerging economies.
JW

Jason Whalley

Northumbria University
RW

Roseline Wanjiru

Northumbria University


Saturday September 21, 2019 4:00pm - 4:33pm
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:00pm

Competition, Technological Change and Productivity Gains: The Contribution of Information Technologies
View full paper here

This paper addresses the empirical relationship between the level of competition and the rate of productivity growth across thirty sectors of the French production system during the period 1978- 2015. It shows that there exists an optimal level of competition for each sector that is defined by the mark-up that maximizes the growth rate of labor productivity. The information technologies Sectors have the highest mark-ups for maximizing productivity growth. The persistence of nonop- timal mark-ups in French sectors is associated with a 0.4% loss in aggregate average annual labor productivity growth during the period (1.86%). Hence, long-term productivity growth could have reached 2.25% if mark-ups had been at their optimal level. There is a strong significant positive correlation between the optimal mark-up and the rate of Hicks-neutral technical progress in each sector. This finding implies that sectors with high technical progress, as information technologies sectors, require higher mark-ups to maximize their rate of labor productivity growth. Overall, the aggregate economy would benefit from a decrease in the gap between nonoptimal and optimal mark-ups, as such an alignment would foster productivity growth.

Moderators
JP

Jon Peha

Carnegie Mellon University

Speakers

Saturday September 21, 2019 4:00pm - 4:33pm
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:00pm

Can machines learn whether machines are learning to collude?,
For full paper click here

Abstract
The expanding literature on the antitrust implications of data analytics and algorithmic decision-making focuses on how pricing applications that apply analytics (including machine-learning - ML) to observed data let users coordinate effectively and tacitly on anti-competitive prices. Algorithms that use data on competitors’ past prices (public information) and consumer characteristics (public or past purchases) could implement price discrimination that is profitable for firms and costly to society without the need to exchange proprietary information. Algos that use ML may produce outcomes not detectable from the source code. This tacit market power is enhanced if algorithms signal to each other. As FTC v. Topkins illustrates, they may explicitly facilitate or force tacit collusion; in other cases non-competitive outcomes may emerge as ‘happy accidents’ whose mutual adoption may be a stable convention among firms. This research considers three questions: i) what algorithms will prevail in static, dynamic or evolutionary equilibrium and with what efficiency consequences; ii) how does this reflect information collected and exchanged by firms; and iii) how can regulators detect, prove and correct algorithmic market failure?

The ability to force collusion is illustrated by ‘zero-determinant’ strategies in repeated Prisoners’ Dilemma (many market games are essentially PD); theoretical and experimental results indicate that unilateral adoption of e.g. the Linear Extortion to Collusion algorithm can force other players to behave as though they were colluding. This stabilises and spreads the use of such programmes. We generalise this to finite automata strategies to measure the relative fitness of algorithms of varying complexity and the resulting equilibria for fixed data structures (what each algorithm ‘sees’). There are three outcomes depending on market structure: an evolutionarily stable symmetric pricing strategy close to the Cournot outcome; a symmetric set of asymmetric equilibria close to a Stackelberg outcome and an effectively collusive outcome close to joint monopoly. Comparative statics is used to consider whether more complex (more states or longer memory) algorithms ‘beat’ simpler ones.

This is used to model a game in which apps are written by developers to maximise the value of the app to downstream firms; these developers and algorithms are selected by evolutionary competition (ESS) or mimicry (Replicator dynamics). The reason for adding the second stage is to see how developers’ access to information from several instances of the algorithm will affect the equilibrium, and thus how data protection rules interact with algorithmic decisions.

Finally, we consider the regulatory setting; what types of competitive harm are associated with equilibria, how ‘bad’ algorithms can be detected and differentiated from ‘bad outcomes’ and the scope for information sharing rules and data analytics to minimise harm while retaining the benefits of such decisions.

We consider a dynamic spectrum access application - allocation of spectrum to firms that compete to offer services to overlapping markets with different time-patterns of use. This model can be used to analyse the trade-off between speed and complexity, analogously to the comparative performance of complex software-based pricing models and fast hardware-based (moving average) models in algorithmic asset trading models.

Moderators
PH

Petrus H. Potgieter

University of South Africa

Speakers
avatar for Jonathan Cave

Jonathan Cave

University of Warwick
Economist working on regulation, policy impact, privacy, cybersecurity etc.Turing fellow working on digital ethics, deep learning and algorithmic bias/collusion.Econmist member of UK Regulatory Policy Committee, scrutinising impact assessments, working Better Regulation.


Saturday September 21, 2019 4:00pm - 4:33pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

4:00pm

Privacy Preserving Policy Framework: User-Aware and User-Driven
Speakers
JC

Jean Camp

Indiana University Bloomington
SD

Sanchari Das

Indiana University Bloomington
JD

Jayati Dev

Indiana University Bloomington


Saturday September 21, 2019 4:00pm - 4:33pm
Y402 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:33pm

Addressing Privacy and Security Concerns with Distributed Tech without Impeding Innovation
For full paper click here

The increased use of open source components in the continuously expanding Internet of Things (IoT) space has highlighted both the valuable benefits and the risks associated with open source, with the latter raising a variety of privacy and safety concerns. This paper seeks to discuss the opportunities and challenges presented by the use of open source in IoT devices.

In addition to exploring the potential risks these technologies may present to consumers through the use of open source, this paper will also discuss the regulatory alternatives (top-down regulations versus industry best practices and self-regulation) in dealing with the privacy and security concerns posed by open source in the IoT space. More specifically, this paper seeks to address the implications of both top-down and voluntary regulatory alternatives, thus offering a more comprehensive discussion of the emerging regulatory framework in a post- General Data Protection Regulation context. It will conclude by outlining policy solutions that aim to protect consumers without impeding innovation.

Moderators
avatar for rob frieden

rob frieden

Professor, Bellisario College

Speakers
KP

Krisztina Pusok

American Consumer Institute


Saturday September 21, 2019 4:33pm - 5:06pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:33pm

An Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Over-The-Top (OTT) Communications Services and Mobile Telephony: A Case of Thailand
View full paper here


This paper examines consumer preferences for voice calling using two methods via a mobile phone—over-the-top (OTT) communications services employing the Internet, and traditional mobile telephony using a cellular network. Due to its two-sided business model, OTT communications essentially offer services to users at no cost, enabling them to successfully compete with traditional telecommunications services. However, there are tradeoffs in using OTT services; for example, service quality is unsatisfactory compared to mobile telephony, and using OTT requires an Internet connection, potentially leading to additional costs. The objective of this paper is to understand consumer behavior in choosing between the two services in different situations of use—formal and casual occasional—and how they prioritize these attributes; service quality, price and Internet connection requirement. A discrete choice experiment was conducted in Thailand in 2019 using a web-based survey and face-to-face interviews. Four-hundred and forty-four responses were received, with respondents valuing service quality the most for both occasions, followed by price and then Internet connection. However, in the situation of formal usage, consumers valued service quality to a significantly higher degree than prices compared to casual use situations. Additionally, willingness to pay for better quality under the formal occasion was found to be 4 Baht per minute, whereas it was 1.4 Baht under the casual situation. Hence, users tend to use different services depending on the occasion of use—consumers tend to call using mobile telephony, the service quality of which is considered to be better, in formal occasions, whereas they use OTT for calls in casual situations. Users are also willing to pay for better quality service in so-called freemium employed services. Implications of these results and policy recommendations are also discussed in this paper.

Moderators
HH

Heather Hudson

University of Alaska Anchorage

Speakers
MJ

Monarat Jirakasem

Waseda University


Saturday September 21, 2019 4:33pm - 5:06pm
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:33pm

Urban Competitiveness and the Smart City: An empirical analysis in a Developing Country Context
Click for full paper

his paper examines whether smart city programs, and information technology in general, contribute to urban competitiveness. Using regression analysis, it investigates the contribution of different metrics of the information economy, network society, online government and digital life to the competitiveness of cities. At a more general level, it seeks to measure the benefits of the application of information technology to the economic competitiveness, livability and environmental sustainability of cities. It concludes with guidance for urban development in developing countries.

Moderators
JP

Jon Peha

Carnegie Mellon University

Speakers
XP

Xiaoyue Peng

Pennsylvania State University


Saturday September 21, 2019 4:33pm - 5:06pm
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

4:33pm

Making IoT Worthy of Human Trust
Click here for full paper
Abstract
The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the foundation which enables secure and trusted transactions across the Internet. PKI is subject to both continuous attacks and regular improvements; for example, advances in cryptography have led to rejections of previously trusted algorithms (i.e., SHA1, MD5). Yet there have also been organizational failures and malicious acts by trusted parties. In this work, we focus on the sociotechnical components of the current X.509 PKI with the goals of better understanding its vulnerabilities, and ideally informing the implementation of future PKIs. We begin with a taxonomy of chronic, catastrophic, high impact, or frequent PKI failures. This categorization was informed by a survey of non-expert perceptions of PKI and an interdisciplinary workshop addressing the future of security in the Internet of Things. To evaluate the failure modes, we conducted qualitative interviews with policy scholars and experts in applied cryptography. We summarize the results of the survey and workshop, and detail the expert interviews. Our findings indicate that there are significant failure types which neither the technical nor policy community are deeply engaging. The underlying assumptions about rate and severity of failure differ between these communities. Yet there is a common awareness of the vulnerabilities of the end users: the people who are required to trust PKI to interact and engage with the Internet. We identify an urgency in mitigating such critical issues, because of the increasing adoption of cyberphysical systems and the Internet of Things (IoT). We concluded that there is a need for integrated organizational, policy, and technical coordination to address the chronic and potentially catastrophic risks. We introduce possible economic and regulatory solutions, and highlight the key takeaways which pave our future research directions.

Moderators
PH

Petrus H. Potgieter

University of South Africa

Speakers
SD

Sanchari Das

Indiana University Bloomington
NS

Nicolas Serrano

Indiana University Bloomington
JC

Jean Camp

Indiana University Bloomington
HH

H Hadan

Indiana University Bloomington


Saturday September 21, 2019 4:33pm - 5:06pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

4:33pm

Internalizing the Harm of Privacy Breaches: Do Firms Have an Incentive to Improve Data Protection? An Event Study
View full paper here

Big data, combined with machine learning and artificial intelligence, is expected to increase the bulk of personal data in the hands of private and public entities, presenting a unique challenge to policymakers. Therefore, the question of how to incentivise firms to protect personal information is more relevant today than ever before. This study attempts to associate privacy breach announcements with the drop in share price using an event study. The results show that firms suffer a significant and immediate share price depreciation over a short window, and this is sustained over the entire forecast window after the event. Furthermore, this effect is greater when a larger number of customers are affected and the information exposed is financially sensitive. This represents a departure from previous studies, which found only a mild negative and temporary market reaction following a breach. These findings, using data from 2014-2018, will encourage policymakers to consider strict disclosure policies, thereby encouraging firms to invest in best data security practices.Keywords: Privacy, Information Security, Event Study

Moderators
CG

Carolyn Gideon

Tufts University

Speakers
SL

Sam Lee

Tilburg University


Saturday September 21, 2019 4:33pm - 5:06pm
Y402 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:06pm

Technical, Economic, and Social Coordination Requirements of Internet-Based Innovation
Click here for full paper

Abstract
The paper explores the role of coordination mechanisms with an emphasis on next generation digital innovations, many of them related to the Internet of Things (IoT) and 5G wireless services. Much of the discussion on the conditions that support Internet-based innovation focused on modular innovations. These were indeed a major driver of innovation in during much of the development of the Internet. While many of the new services can be configured as modular projects, others, for example cyber-physical systems supporting smart cities or autonomous vehicles, require coordination efforts that go beyond the relevant market players and involved public sector actors and the development of social norms that support these innovations. We are particularly interested in the role of policy in facilitating the provision of appropriate coordination mechanisms. The discussion shows that some situations may require new forms of proactive public policy at the local, state, and national level, including coordinated rollout of complementary infrastructures, support for public interest innovation, and a redesign of regulation and legislation.

Moderators
avatar for rob frieden

rob frieden

Professor, Bellisario College

Speakers
JB

Johannes Bauer

Michigan State University


Saturday September 21, 2019 5:06pm - 5:40pm
NT01 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:06pm

Diversity without disagreeability: A multi-national examination of social networks and participation in political dialog
Moderators
HH

Heather Hudson

University of Alaska Anchorage

Speakers
LF

Laleah Fernandez

Michigan State University
avatar for Ruth Shillair, Ph.D.

Ruth Shillair, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Media & Information Studies, Michigan State University
Interests include: improving protections for individuals by improving cybersecurity, reducing digital divides, making cybersecurity/privacy usable.


Saturday September 21, 2019 5:06pm - 5:40pm
NT07 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:06pm

Assessing Cost Effectiveness of Digital Development Projects
Click for full paper

Abstract
There is scant data on the effectiveness of different digital development projects that seek to connect and serve underserved communities. This stymies data-driven decision-making: absence of comparative cost-effectiveness analysis hampers key funding decisions by grant-making organizations and local governments in developing country environments, and can impact right-sizing of funding opportunities to project needs. This remains as true of demand-side initiatives that seek to deploy digital skills training, or supply-side initiatives using a myriad of technologies to connect the unconnected.

This paper makes headway on this problem by providing costs, reach, and simple metrics of cost-effectiveness in the form of cost/beneficiary/year incurred by different digital development projects. Using a first-of-its-kind dataset hand collected through in-depth interviews conducted with project practitioners, we report on the costs and reach across different demand- and supply-side initiatives seeking to connect the unconnected. Our contribution is unique, in that it seeks to collect and compare different connectivity initiatives across a range of domains: education, health, and agriculture; as well as standalone grassroots connectivity initiatives in the form of community networks and small scale rural ISP deployments.

The contribution of this paper is two-fold: first, we report on original costs and reach data on several projects through in-depth interviews, providing costs for a field where even order of magnitude estimates are hard to procure. Second, as changes to underlying assumptions can widely vary cost-effectiveness estimates, and these assumptions are rarely discussed in the literature for their relative strengths and weaknesses, this paper seeks to also report on a meta- analysis of cost effectiveness measures as used in various literatures in development and healthcare particularly, and use those learnings for developing cost effectiveness measures for digital development initiatives.

We report costs of projects in terms of fixed and operational costs, as well as development, management, and implementation costs in different development domains. We then provide purchasing-power-parity and real-dollar estimates of completed and ongoing projects by per beneficiary and per year costs. In instances where revenue estimates are available, we compute return on investment and time to break even using different discounting assumptions. We additionally conduct sensitivity analysis on our assumptions for discount rates for ongoing projects. A key finding in collection of this dataset has been that 2/3rd of the projects that we study do not have a revenue model, when both supply-side and demand-side projects are taken together for analysis.

Speakers
JP

Jon Peha

Carnegie Mellon University
CY

Christopher Yoo

University of Pennsylvania
MH

Muge Haseki

University of Pennsylvania
SS

Sharada Srinivasan

University of Pennsylvania


Saturday September 21, 2019 5:06pm - 5:40pm
Y116 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC

5:06pm

A Complete Study of P.K.I. (PKI’s Known Incidents)
Download paper
Abstract
In this work, we report on a comprehensive analysis of PKI resulting from Certificate Authorities’ (CAs) behavior using over 1300 instances. We found several cases where CAs designed business models that favored the issuance of digital certificates over the guidelines of the CA Forum, root management programs, and other PKI requirements. Examining PKI from the perspective of business practices, we identify a taxonomy of failures and identify systemic vulnerabilities in the governance and practices in PKI. Notorious cases include the “backdating” of digital certificates, the issuance of these for MITM attempts, the lack of verification of a requester’s identity, and the unscrupulous issuance of rogue certificates. We performed a detailed study of 379 of these 1300 incidents. Using this sample, we developed a taxonomy of the different types of incidents and their causes. For each incident, we determined if the incident was disclosed by the problematic CA. We also noted the Root CA and the year of the incident. We identify the failures in terms of business practices, geography, and outcomes from CAs. We analyzed the role of Root Program Owners (RPOs) and differentiated their policies. We identified serial and chronic offenders in the PKI trusted root programs. Some of these were distrusted by RPOs, while others remain being trusted despite failures. We also identified cases where the concentration of power of RPOs was arguably a contributing factor in the incident. We identify these cases where there is a risk of concentration of power and the resulting conflict of interests. Our research is the first comprehensive academic study addressing all verified reported incidents. We approach this not from a machine learning or statistical perspective but, rather, we identify each reported public incident with a focus on identifying patterns of individual lapses. Here we also have a specific focus on the role of CAs and RPOs. Building on this study, we identify the issues in incentive structures that are contributors to the problems.

Moderators
PH

Petrus H. Potgieter

University of South Africa

Speakers
JC

Jean Camp

Indiana University Bloomington
HH

H Hadan

Indiana University Bloomington
NS

Nicolas Serrano

Indiana University Bloomington


Saturday September 21, 2019 5:06pm - 5:40pm
Y403 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington DC

5:06pm

Privacy Policies Caught between the Legal and the Ethical: European Media and Third Party Trackers before and after GDPR
For full paper click here

This contribution analyses the use of third-party trackers by European countries media before and after the introduction of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (hereafter: GDPR) as an inroad to discuss the legal versus ethical obligations of media with regards to audiences’ privacy and the impact on the key value of trust in media. In force since 25 May 2018, GDPR provides extended rights to users to protect personal information. The legislation deals with third-party servers (represented by URLs) that play a role in compiling a webpage presented to the user. We focus on third-party servers that track, collect and analyse user behaviour.

Theoretically, the paper starts from the idea that legal discussions of and instruments to regulate third-party servers’ impact on privacy do not cover more fundamental ethical questions. Data collection may be lawful but can affect users' lives in unwanted ways and, thus, affect their trust in the service provider, i.e. media. This has two complementary theoretical perspectives: computer ethics (e.g. Moore, 1997; Brey 2005) and (public service) media values (authors, 2017) in the ‘calculated public sphere’ (Harper, 2016).

Data result from an extensive and repeated collecting of third party traffic on media-related websites. From a dataset of +32 million recordings of HTTP responses from servers for files like pictures, code or text to +12700 web pages from 1250 websites visited 25 times before and after GDPR, we selected 355 media websites from 38 European countries (#114 from EBU members, #241 from private media). Data were analysed and third-party servers were identified and categorized.

The result section, first, discusses various characteristics of third-party trackers before focusing on differences between public service and private media, comparing for EU/EEA versus the rest of Europe. Next, we analyse evolutions over time finding that public service websites are unchanged with regards to third party URLs, while private media show a decrease. Furthermore, GDPR has led to smaller third-parties disappearing to the advantage of the big ones, enhancing concentration of power for access to and collecting of user data.

Results are discussed in light of the ethical implications of what may legally be a licensed use of audiences’ data by third-party trackers. We assumed that the more third-party servers involved in a webpage visit, 1) the higher the potential exposure of personal, identifiable information and, thus, 2) the more the ethical aspects of privacy and, ultimately 3) the soft value of trust – crucial to the working of media, especially PSM - are compromised. Finally, it discusses how media policies in the area of privacy and wider individual rights need to go beyond the legal boundaries as set out in legal frameworks such as GDPR.

Moderators
CG

Carolyn Gideon

Tufts University

Speakers
JK

Jannick Kirk Sorensen

Aalborg University
HV

Hilde Van den Bulk

Drexel University
SK

Sokol Kosta

Aalborg University


Saturday September 21, 2019 5:06pm - 5:40pm
Y402 WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave, Washington, DC